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Daily Review #3. Compare and contrast passive and active transport. (How are they similar and how are they different?) Describe the structure of a cell membrane. How are cell membranes fluid mosaics and semi-permeable?. Osmosis. Involves water Important for homeostasis

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daily review 3
Daily Review #3
  • Compare and contrast passive and active transport. (How are they similar and how are they different?)
  • Describe the structure of a cell membrane.
  • How are cell membranes fluid mosaics and semi-permeable?
osmosis
Osmosis

Involves water

Important for homeostasis

Facilitated diffusion

High to low concentration

Passive transport

Aquaporins

Membrane proteins

Specific for water

what if water is equal inside and outside
What if water is equal inside and outside?
  • Isotonic
    • Equal concentrations
    • Solute and water
  • Osmosis in and out equally
  • Cell stays same size
more water outside than inside
…More water outside than inside
  • Environment hypotonic
    • Lower solute than cell
    • Higher water than cell
  • Water moves in the cell
  • Results
    • Can pump out water
      • Contractile vacuole
    • Animal cell - lyse
    • Plant cell - turgid
more water inside than outside
…More water inside than outside
  • Environment hypertonic
    • Higher solute than cell
    • Lower water than cell
  • Water moves out of the cell
  • Results
    • Animal cell – shrinks
    • Plant cell – plasmolysis
    • Needs to take in water to survive
exercise
Exercise

Sweat

Lose water and electrolytes

Osmosis

Dehydrates cells

Sports drinks

Electrolytes

Importance to body

Replacement

Retains water

Increase urge to drink

Carbohydrates

Speed water absorption

Too much slows absorption

Energy source

http://runnersmark.blogspot.com/2013/06/on-sports-drinks.html

cell wall
Cell Wall

Outside cell membrane

Plant cells,

some bacteria

Purpose

Maintains shape

Support

Protection

Porous

daily review 5
Daily Review #5
  • How, when and why are sports drinks beneficial for athletes?
  • Compare and contrast cell membranes and cell walls.
  • Define
    • Hypotonic
    • Hypertonic
    • Isotonic
    • Plasmolysis
    • Lyse
cell organelles
Cell Organelles
  • Do the work
  • Like a factory
  • Cytoplasm
    • Support
nucleus
Nucleus
  • Eukaryotes
    • Plants and animals
  • Structure
    • Nuclear membrane
      • Pores
    • Nucleolus
    • DNA
      • Chromatin
      • Chromosomes
      • Make proteins
slide12
Purpose

Control center

Make ribosomes

mitochondria
Mitochondria

Eukaryotes

Plants and animals

Power plants

Change food energy into usable form

Sugar + O2 ATP

Double membrane

Inner is heavily folded

Contains small DNA and ribosomes

Inherited from your mother

chloroplasts
Chloroplasts

Plant and similar cells

Photosynthesis

Sun + CO2 ATP + sugar

Outer membrane

Stacks of inner membranes

Contain chlorophyll

Small amounts of DNA

vacuole
Vacuole
  • Central
    • Plants
    • Storage
  • Contractile
    • Elimination
ribosomes
Ribosomes

Made by nucleolus

Assemble proteins

“Read” DNA instructions

Location

Free

Attached to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

endoplasmic reticulum er
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Internal membrane system

Attached to nucleus

Rough

Has ribosomes

Smooth

Makes membrane lipids

Purpose

Further assembles proteins

Makes membranes

golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
  • Stack of flattened membranes
  • In cytoplasm
  • Purpose
    • Finish, sort, label proteins
    • Ship proteins in vesicles
bulk cellular transport
Bulk Cellular Transport

Larger molecules or clumps of material across the membrane

Passive

Two types:

Endocytosis

Exocytosis

endocytosis
Endocytosis

Membrane forms pocket

Pocket breaks lose

Forms a vesicle inside the cytoplasm

Types of endocytosis:

Phagocytosis

Pinocytosis

exocytosis
Exocytosis

Releases material from inside the cell

Membrane of a vacuole or vesicle fuses with the cell membrane

Forces the vacuole/vesicle contents out of the cell.

Contractile vacuoles

lysosomes
Lysosomes
  • Membrane sac of digestive enzymes
  • Purpose
    • Digest food
    • Clean up crew
    • Recycle
daily review 8
Daily Review #8
  • Add lysosomes to your cell organelle chart
  • Definitions
    • Exocytosis
    • Endocytosis
    • Phagocytosis
    • Pinocytosis
cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton

Long threads of protein fibers

Function

Transportation

Maintain shape

Support

Movement

centrioles
Centrioles

9+2

Perpendicular pairs

Move chromosomes

Active during cell division

Animal cells

other structures
Other Structures
  • Purpose - movement
  • Mainly in bacteria
  • Cilia
  • Flagella
daily review 9
Daily Review #9
  • Add to cell organelle chart
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Centriole
    • Flagella
    • Cilia