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ART HISTORY. CHAPTER 3 PGS 40-69 VISUAL ARTS I & II MELODY JUNKER JANUARY 2009. OVERVIEW. THERE HAS ALWAYS BEEN ART B4 WRITTEN RECORDS-PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS, SCULPTURE, JEWELRY, & DECORATE FUNCTIONAL ITEMS ART TELLS US ABOUT PAST PEOPLES AND HOW THEY LIVED

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art history

ART HISTORY

CHAPTER 3 PGS 40-69

VISUAL ARTS I & II

MELODY JUNKER

JANUARY 2009

overview
OVERVIEW
  • THERE HAS ALWAYS BEEN ART
  • B4 WRITTEN RECORDS-PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS, SCULPTURE, JEWELRY, & DECORATE FUNCTIONAL ITEMS
  • ART TELLS US ABOUT PAST PEOPLES AND HOW THEY LIVED
  • ART HISTORY IS A RECORD OF ART FROM PAST TO PRESENT.
  • ART HISTORIANS LOOK AT CHANGES IN ART OVER TIME
  • ART HISTORIANS ALSO LOOK AT THE WAY ART IS CREATED FROM PLACE TO PLACE
learning about works of art
LEARNING ABOUT WORKS OF ART
  • STEP ONE: DESCRIPTION
  • STEP TWO: ANALYSIS
  • STEP THREE: INTERPRETATION
  • STEP FOUR: JUDGEMENT
  • *SAME STEP NAMES AS THE STEPS TO CRITIQUE AN ARTWORK
the 4 steps
THE 4 STEPS
  • STEP 1 (DESCRIPTION)-WHEN, WHERE, AND BY WHOM WAS THE ART DONE?
    • LOOK FOR THE ARTIST’S SIGNATURE AND DATE ON THE PIECE
  • STEP 2 (ANALYSIS)- WHAT IS THE STYLE OF THE WORK, AND DOES THE WORK FIT INTO AN ART MOVEMENT?
    • LOOK AT THE ARTIST’S STYLE. NO 2 PEOPLE HAVE EXACTLY THE SAME STYLE.
    • STYLE IS THE ARTIST’S PERSONAL WAY OF USING THE ELEMENTS OF ART AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN TO EXPRESS FEELINGS AND IDEAS.
  • PAGE 42 -43
slide5

STEP 3 (INTERPRETATION)- HOW DID TIME AND PLACE AFFECT THE ARTIST’S STYLE AND SUBJECT MATTER?

  • STEP 4 (JUDGEMENT)- DOES THE WORK OF ART MAKE AN IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF ART?
    • DID THE ARTIST INTRODUCE A NEW STYLE?
    • OR IS THIS AN OUTSTANDING EXAMPLE OF AN EXISTING STYLE?
art of earliest times
ART OF EARLIEST TIMES
  • PREHISTORIC (BEFORE WRITTEN HISTORY)
  • THIS ART IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE THIS IS ALL THE INFORMATION WE HAVE ABOUT PAST CULTURES
  • DEEP IN CAVES-BRIGHTLY COLORED AND REALISTIC PAINTINGS
  • PURPOSE IS THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN FOR HUNTING RITUALS, SINCE UNLIKELY TO LIVED HERE OR TO CELEBRATE A SUCCESSFUL HUNT
ancient river valleys
ANCIENT RIVER VALLEYS
  • EGYPT
    • PHARAOHS HAD COMPLETE AUTHORITY
    • ARTISTS HAD TO FOLLOW STRICT RULES SET UP BY PHARAOHS
    • RULES REQUIRED THAT EACH PART OF BODY TO BE SHOWN FROM THE MOST VISIBLE ANGLE
    • HEADS, ARMS, LEGS, & FEET SHOWN IN PROFILE
    • SHOULDERS & EYES ARE SEEN FROM FRONTAL VIEW
    • SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF PERSON BURIED IN THE TOMB ARE PAINTED ON THE WALLS.
    • SCENES INTENDED TO REMIND THE SPIRIT OF ITS LIFE ON EARTH
mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA
  • REGION WAS A CRESCENT OF LAND BETWEEN THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS-VERY FERTILE LAND
  • SUMERIANS DEVELOPED FIRST SYSTEM OF WRITING CALLED CUNEIFORM-MADE UP OF WEDGE SHAPED CHARACTERS
  • ARTWORK MORE REALISTIC THAN EGYPTIAN
china
CHINA
  • ANCIENT CHINESE CIVILIZATION IN YELLOW RIVER VALLEY
    • STILL EXISTS TODAY
    • THE OLDEST CONTINOUS CULTURE IN HISTORY OF WORLD
    • FIRST DYNASTY WAS SHANG DYNASTY

CAST-BRONZE WORK FROM THIS 13TH CENTURY CIVILIZATION EXISTS

    • ADOPTED BUDDHISM DURING HAN DYNASTY (206BC-220AD)
    • BELIEVED COULD CAPTURE BEAUTY OF A SUBJECT BETTER DUE TO LONG PERIODS OF MEDITATION
    • PAINTINGS WERE MADE ON SILK OR PARCHMENT SCROLLS
    • MADE RELIGIOUS SCULPTURES & TO HONOR THE DEAD
    • BEGAN CREATING CLAY SCULPTURES DURING SUNG DYNASTY
    • TOMBS OF CLAY SCULPTURES ARE STILL BEING DISCOVERED
india
INDIA
  • STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY HINDU AND BUDDHIST RELIGIONS
  • BUILT TEMPLES OF STONE

JAPAN

  • ALSO ADOPTED BUDDHISM
  • UNTIL END OF 9TH CENTURY JAPANESE ARTISTS COPIED CHINESE STYLES & OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES
  • PAINTINGS & PRINTMAKING –SCENES OF WAR, EVERYDAY LIFE, COURT LIFE, & NATURE.
slides slide 1
SLIDES SLIDE#1
  • LASCAUX CAVE PAINTING
  • HORSE
  • PREHISTORIC ART
  • estimated to be 16,000 years old
slide 2
SLIDE #2
  • Detail of “DAVID” by
  • MICHELANGELO
  • ITALIAN RENAISSANCE
  • 1504
  • Carrara MarbleFlorence, Galleria dell'Accademia
slide 3
SLIDE #3
  • DONETELLO
  • ITALIAN RENAISSANCE
  • Equestrian Monument of Gattamelata
  • (1445–1450)
  • Piazza del Santo, Padua
slide 4
SLIDE #4
  • Mona Lisa(Italian: La Gioconda, French:La Joconde)
  • Leonardo da Vinci,
  • c. 1503–1506
  • Oil on poplar
  • 77 × 53 cm, 30 × 21 in
  • Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • ITALIAN RENAISSANCE
slide 5
SLIDE #5
  • Artemisia Gentileschi
  • Judith and her Maidservant
  • (1613-14)
  • Oil on canvas
  • Palazzo Pitti, Florence
  • ITALIAN BAROQUE
art of ancient greece
ART OF ANCIENT GREECE

DORIC STYLE ARCHITECTURE

  • The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.
art of ancient greece1
ART OF ANCIENT GREECE

IONIC STYLE ARCHITECTURE

  • The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands.
art of ancient greece2
ART OF ANCIENT GREECE

CORINTHIAN STYLE ARCHITECTURE

  • The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves.
slide19
Doric Order:
  • Parthenon - temple of Athena Parthenos ("Virgin"), Greek goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens. The Parthenon was built in the 5th century BC
slide20
Ionic Order:
  • Erechtheum - temple from the middle classical period of Greek art and architecture, built on the Acropolis of Athens between 421 and 405BC.
corinthian order
Corinthian Order:
  • - most ornate of the classic orders of architecture. It was also the latest, not arriving at full development until the middle of the 4th cent. B.C. The oldest known example, however, is found in the temple of Apollo at Bassae (c.420 B.C.). The Greeks made little use of the order; the chief example is the circular structure at Athens known as the choragic monument of Lysicrates ( 335 B.C.). The temple of Zeus at Athens (started in the 2d cent. B.C. and completed by Emperor Hadrian in the 2d cent. A.D.) was perhaps the most notable of the Corinthian temples.
  • http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Art/
slide22
Discobolos, Ancient Greek Statue

Classical Art (480 - 323 BC)

  • was created during a "golden age", from the time Athens rose to prominence and Greek expansion, right up until the death of Alexander the Great. The Classical age could be seen as a turning point in art and produced some of the most exquisite sculptures known today. It was during this age that sculptors had mastered marble and began creating statues that showed joyous freedom of movement and expression, while celebrating mankind as an independent entity (atomo).
  • http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Sculpture/
the hellenistic era 323 31 bc
The Hellenistic Era (323 - 31 BC)

Charioteer of Delphi

  • began around the death of Alexander the Great and ended with the battle of Actium in 31 BC.
  • Artists turned to a more experimental movement and a sense of freedom that allowed the artist to explore his subjects from different unique points of view.
ancient rome
ANCIENT ROME

The great copycats

  • Traditional Roman sculpture is divided into five categories: portraiture, historical relief, funerary reliefs, sarcophagi, and copies of ancient Greek works.
  • It is only thanks to some Roman copies that a knowledge of Greek originals is preserved. One example of this is at the British Museum, where an intact 2nd century A.D. Roman copy of a statue of Venus is displayed, while a similar original 500 B.C. Greek statue at the Louvre is missing her arms.
roman architecture
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE

The Pantheon, Colosseum & Aqueducts

  • It was in the area of architecture that Roman art produced its greatest innovations.
  • Roman engineers developed methods for city building on a grand scale, including the use of concrete.
o nto the middle ages
Onto the Middle Ages

476 AD-1400 AD

Early Middle ages

  • Also called the “Age of Faith”
  • Christian religion was important force
  • Monasteries built
  • Churches grew in size and political importance
  • Architecture: Romanesque style
    • Massive size
    • Solid heavy walls
    • Wide use of Roman arch
    • Many Sculptural

decorations

Dominant style until 12th century (1100’s)

examples of romanesque churches
Examples of Romanesque Churches

Spain

Wiltshire, England

illuminated texts paintings
Illuminated Texts & Paintings

Historiated Initials

Illuminated Bible

Close-up

more art of middle ages
More art of Middle Ages

Situla (Bucket for Holy Water), ca. 860–880Carolingian; From the Church of Saints Peter and Paul, Crannenburg, Germany, possibly made in Reims, northern FranceIvory with copper alloy gilt mounts and inlays; 8 1/2 x 5 1/8 in. (21.6 x 13 cm)Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917 (17.190.45)

Jaharis Lectionary, ca. 1100Byzantine (Constantinople)Tempera, ink, and gold leaf on parchment, leather binding; 14 1/2 x 11 5/8 x 4 7/8 in. (36.8 x 29.6 x 12.4 cm)Purchase, Mary and Michael Jaharis Gift and Lila Acheson Wallace Gift, 2007 (2007.286)

12 th century middle ages
12 th Century (Middle Ages)
  • More people moved from country into cities
  • Skilled workers created guilds
  • Apprentices learned from masters
  • New wealthy middle class, city pride & religious faith led to building huge Cathedrals
    • 2 big developments:
      • The Pointed Arch
      • Flying Buttresses
      • Brought changes in Architecture: new style: GOTHIC
gothic cathedrals
Gothic Cathedrals
  • Largest architecture since Egyptian Pyramids
  • Used Stained Glass windows to allow light into churches
  • Light was a rich glowing color due to the many colors in the stained glass windows
  • Gothic sculpture & painting less stylized more realistic
  • Religious scenes painted on church altars with egg tempera paint and gold leaf
cathedral of notre dame
Cathedral of Notre Dame

South side view of Notre Dame

Stained Glass Window from Notre Dame

renaissance is the name of the period of awakening at the end of the middle ages
Renaissance –is the name of the period of awakening at the end of the Middle Ages
  • The beginning of the Renaissance is marked by:
  • Invention of printing press
  • Exploration of the Americas
  • New interest in the art of ancient Greece and Rome
  • During Middle Ages artists worked for the church-During Renaissance artists work for themselves and greats such as Michelangelo, Da Vinci, & Raphael mingled with Kings and Nobles.
  • In painting & sculpture the solid realistic appearance of people and objects became important.
linear perspective
Linear Perspective
  • Filippo Brunelleschi, an architect, developed technique called linear perspective—a graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface.
  • This system enabled artists to show figures and objects in space.
  • Rules of perspective made placement of objects & depiction of mass, measurable and exact.
  • This gave the illusion of reality to art works!
art of islam
Art of Islam
  • Decorative
  • Interior of mosques decorated with
    • ornate calligraphy
    • Geometric patterns
    • Stylized plants & flowers
    • Pictures of people or animals not allowed
    • Book illustrators were limited by these restrictions
      • Depicted everyday scenes
      • Beautiful, decorative patterns

Nushirvan Eating the Food Brought by the Sons of Mahbud(?): From the Great Mongol Shahnama (Book of Kings), 1330sIran, probably TabrizInk, colors, and gold on paper; 8 1/4 x 9 3/8 in. (21 x 25 cm)Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1952 (52.20.2)

art of native americas
Art of Native Americas
  • People of North, Central & South Americas had well-organized civilizations by the time explorers arrived
  • Mimbres/Salado cultureCache of Ritual Figures
  • North American, New Mexico, Cliff Valley area c. 1150 Wood, stone, turquoise, feathers, fiber, cotton, and earth pigments h. 63 cm
  • Major Acquisitions Centennial Fund, 1979.17c (Art Institute of Chicago)
art of native americas1
Art of Native Americas
  • Nazca culture Vessel Depicting Composite Fish, Feline, and Human Figure Peru 59/200 Ceramic h. 18.56 cm x w. 17.2 cm Kate S. Buckingham Endowment, 1955.2100 View enlargement
  • The image painted on this vessel is one of the most common in the repertoire of the Nazca people, who inhabited the south of Peru from around 200 B.C. to 600 A.D. The image is a pictogram combining abstracted human and animal features to form a new, fantastic creature. The face of this figure combines human and feline traits, reminiscent of Olmec art from the Mexican Gulf coast. The figure is wearing a catlike mask with large whiskers, a crown, and dangling discs. There are also signs of war and rulership, such as the trophy head and baton in the figure’s hands.
  • Peru 59/200 Ceramic h.
  • 18.56 cm x w. 17.2 cm
  • Kate S. Buckingham Endowment, 1955.2100
  • Art institute of Chicago
art of africa
Art of Africa
  • Found in north central Nigeria off the edge of the Jos plateau.
  • The oldest known example of terracotta sculpture in Africa, south of the Sahara.
  • Dates from 2500-800 B.P  (500 BC to 200 AD).
  • Wide diversity of subject matter depicted with considerable variation in style, treatment and scale.
  • Highly skilled in the creation of full-length human figures.

The head is almost life-size and was part of a

full-length figure.  Elaborate hairstyle has buns

with holes. 

art of africa1
Art of Africa
  • Some Stylistic Characteristics of Nok Art:
  • Elaborate coiffure.
  • Cylindrical heads.
  • Pierced eyes, nose, mouth, and ears.
  • Semi-circular/Triangular eyes and lids.
  • Ears set back, often low and small.
  • Flared nostrils.
ife culture africa
Ife Culture (Africa)
  • Art comes from archaeological sites found in western Nigeria.
  • Consists of objects made from terracotta, bronze, and stone.
  • Objects date 1000-500 B.P (1000 and 1500 A.D).
  • Believed to be created for the ruling elite.
  • Idealized naturalism.
  • Full length figures and busts are common.
  • Figures are sometimes heavily beaded.

Bronze (Leaded  brass) bust of Ife ruler

from 900-500 B.P. (1100-1500 A.D).  Mustache and

beard or beaded veil may have been attached to the

holes around the mouth, chin and jaw.

Idena (gatekeeper). 

Has iron nails in its coiffure and elaborately tied sash. 

art of native australia
Art of Native Australia
  • Art and decoration is an integral part of tradition life to the Aboriginal culture. Art is the lifeblood of their communities, connecting them to the past, the present and to each other. Inspiration for much of the art comes from religious and ceremonial aspects of life.
  • early Aborigines used only earth colours, naturally occurring pigments in the soil that produced reds, browns, and yellow ochres.
  • In some areas people and animals were depicted ‘X-ray’ style, showing their inner skeleton and organs.
  • The surface around the main designs and figures were densely hatched, dotted, and patterned - areas were rarely left blank.
  • Stencils, frequently of hands, are found in all rock-painting areas and were produced by placing an object against the rock wall and then blowing a mouthful of paint over it.
baroque 1600 1700
Baroque 1600-1700
  • Artemisia Gentileschi
  • Rembrandt
  • Caravaggio
  • Baroque painters, sculptors, and architects sought to portray emotion, variety, and movement in their works by appealing to the senses.
rococo 1700 1750
Rococo 1700-1750
  • is a style of 18th century French art and interior design. Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings.
  • some critics used the term to derogatively imply that the style was frivolous or merely modish
  • The Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria)
neoclassicism 1750 1800
Neoclassicism 1750-1800
  • (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw upon Western classical art and culture (usually that of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome).

At the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, William Henry Playfair employs a Greek Doric octastyle portico.

Oath of the HoratiiJacques-Louis David, 1784 Oil on canvas 326 × 420 cm Louvre, Paris

1800 1850
1800-1850

Romanticism

Realism

  • is a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement .
  • placed new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and awe
  • Thomas Cole
  • Eugene Delacroix
  • Casper David Friedrich
  • Francisco Goya
  • J.M.W. Turner

in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation.

  • Gustave Courbet
  • John Singer Sargent

Madame X

John Singer Sargent, 1884

Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 38.58 × 29.13 inches, 1818, Oil on canvas, Kunsthalle Hamburg

pre raphaelites 1850 1875
Pre-Raphaelites 1850-1875
  • The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of Englishpainters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, Frederic George Stephens, Thomas Woolner and William Holman Hunt.
  • They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art.

The Hireling Shepherd

1851

WILLIAM HOLMAN HUNT

1875 1900
1875-1900

IMPRESSIONISM

POST-IMPRESSIONISM

  • CLAUDE MONET
  • MARY CASSATT
  • PAUL CEZANNE
  • EDGAR DEGAS
  • PIERRE AUGUSTE RENOIR
  • VINCENT VAN GOGH
  • PAUL GAUGUIN
  • PAUL CEZANNE
  • HENRI ROUSSEAU
pointilism
POINTILISM

George Seurat

  • is a style of painting in which small distinct points of primary colors create the impression of a wide selection of secondary and intermediate colors.
1900 1950
1900-1950
  • ABSTRACTION
  • FAUVISM
  • CUBISM
  • FUTURISM
  • DADA
  • SURREALISM
  • MONDRIAN & MIRO
  • MATISSE
  • PICASSO & BRAQUES
  • JOSEPH STELLA
  • DUCHAMP
  • DALI
1950 2000
1950-2000
  • Abstract Expressionism
  • POP ART
  • OP ART
  • JACKSON POLLACK
  • ANDY WARHOL
  • MC ESCHER
  • JOSEPH ALBERS
  • WILLIEM DE KOONING
  • MARC ROTHKO
  • FRANK STELLA