chapter 1 introduction and review l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 1 Introduction and Review PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 1 Introduction and Review

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 42

Chapter 1 Introduction and Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on

Organic Chemistry , 5 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr. Chapter 1 Introduction and Review. =>. Definitions. Old: “derived from living organisms” New: “chemistry of carbon compounds” From inorganic to organic, Wöhler, 1828. Atomic Structure. Protons (+ charges),

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 1 Introduction and Review' - anatole


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
definitions

=>

Definitions
  • Old: “derived from living organisms”
  • New: “chemistry of carbon compounds”
  • From inorganic to organic, Wöhler, 1828

Chapter 1

atomic structure
Atomic Structure
  • Protons (+ charges),
  • Neutrons (no electrical charge), and electrons (- charges)
  • Number of protons = number of electrons
  • Isotopes: Atoms of a given element that differ in the number of neutrons

Chapter 1

electronic configurations

=>

Electronic Configurations
  • Aufbau principle: Place electrons in lowest energy orbital first.
  • Hund’s rule: Equal energy orbitals are half-filled, then filled.





Chapter 1

table 1 1
Table 1-1

=>

Chapter 1

bond formation

=>

Bond Formation
  • Ionic bonding: electrons are transferred.
  • Covalent bonding: electron pair is shared.

Chapter 1

lewis structures
Lewis Structures
  • Bonding electrons
  • Nonbonding electrons or lone pairs

Satisfy the octet rule!=>

Chapter 1

multiple bonding
Multiple Bonding

=>

Chapter 1

dipole moment

=>

Dipole Moment
  • Amount of electrical charge x bond length.
  • Charge separation shown by electrostatic potential map (EPM).
  • Red indicates a partially negative region and blue indicates a partially positive region.

Chapter 1

electronegativity and bond polarity
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

Greater EN means greater bond polarity

=>

Pauling Scale

Chapter 1

calculating formal charge

=>

Calculating Formal Charge
  • For each atom in a valid Lewis structure:
  • Count the number of valence electrons
  • Subtract all its nonbonding electrons
  • Subtract half of its bonding electrons

Chapter 1

resonance
Resonance
  • Only electrons can be moved (usually lone pairs or pi electrons).
  • Nuclei positions and bond angles remain the same.
  • The number of unpaired electrons remains the same.
  • Resonance causes a delocalization of electrical charge.

Example=>

Chapter 1

resonance example
Resonance Example
  • The real structure is a resonance hybrid.
  • All the bond lengths are the same.
  • Each oxygen has a -1/3 electrical charge. =>

Chapter 1

major resonance form
Major Resonance Form
  • has as many octets as possible.
  • has as many bonds as possible.
  • has the negative charge on the most electronegative atom.
  • has as little charge separation as possible.

Example=>

Chapter 1

major contributor

major

minor, carbon does

not have octet.

=>

Major Contributor?

Chapter 1

chemical formulas
Full structural formula (no lone pairs shown)

Line-angle formula

Condensed structural formula

Molecular formula

Empirical formula

CH3COOH

C2H4O2

CH2O =>

Chemical Formulas

Chapter 1

calculating empirical formulas
Calculating Empirical Formulas
  • Given % composition for each element, assume 100 grams.
  • Convert the grams of each element to moles.
  • Divide by the smallest moles to get ratio.
  • Molecular formula may be a multiple of the empirical formula. =>

Chapter 1

arrhenius acids and bases

=>

Arrhenius Acids and Bases
  • Acids dissociate in water to give H3O+ ions.
  • Bases dissociate in water to give OH- ions.
  • Kw = [H3O+ ][OH- ] = 1.0 x 10-14 at 24°C
  • pH = -log [H3O+ ]
  • Strong acids and bases are 100% dissociated.

Chapter 1

br nsted lowry acids and bases

conjugate

acid

conjugate

base

acid

base

=>

BrØnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
  • Acids can donate a proton.
  • Bases can accept a proton.
  • Conjugate acid-base pairs.

Chapter 1

acid and base strength

pKa 4.74

pKb 3.36

pKb 9.26

pKa 10.64

=>

Acid and Base Strength
  • Acid dissociation constant, Ka
  • Base dissociation constant, Kb
  • For conjugate pairs, (Ka)(Kb) = Kw
  • Spontaneous acid-base reactions proceed from stronger to weaker.

Chapter 1

determining relative acidity
Determining Relative Acidity
  • Electronegativity
  • Size
  • Resonance stabilization of conjugate base =>

Chapter 1

electronegativity

=>

Electronegativity

As the bond to H becomes more polarized, H becomes more positive and the bond is easier to break.

Chapter 1

slide37

=>

Size
  • As size increases, the H is more loosely held and the bond is easier to break.
  • A larger size also stabilizes the anion.

Chapter 1

resonance38

=>

Resonance
  • Delocalization of the negative charge on the conjugate base will stabilize the anion, so the substance is a stronger acid.
  • More resonance structures usually mean greater stabilization.

Chapter 1

lewis acids and bases

nucleophile

electrophile

=>

Lewis Acids and Bases
  • Acids accept electron pairs = electrophile
  • Bases donate electron pairs = nucleophile

Chapter 1