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8 th International Bielefeld Conference. Academic Library and Information Services: New Paradigms for the Digital Age. Bielefeld, Germany February 8, 2006 Presented by: Dr. Colleen Cook, Dean Texas A&M University & Dr. Fred Heath, Vice Provost of General Libraries University of Texas.

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academic library and information services new paradigms for the digital age

8th International

Bielefeld Conference

Academic Library and Information Services:New Paradigms for the Digital Age

Bielefeld, Germany

February 8, 2006

Presented by:

Dr. Colleen Cook, Dean

Texas A&M University

&

Dr. Fred Heath, Vice Provost of General Libraries

University of Texas

why assess
Why Assess?

“In an age of accountability, there is a pressing need for an effective…process to evaluate and compare research libraries.”

  • 700 participants in LibQUAL+™
  • 123 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) alone, over $3.4 billion dollars were expended in 2003/2004

Note. M. Kyrillidou and M. Young. (2005).

ARL Statistics 2003-04. Washington, D.C.: ARL, p.5.

slide3

Libraries Remain a CredibleResource in 21st Century

98% agree with statement, “My … library contains information from credible and known sources.”

Note. Digital Library Federation and Council on Library and Information

Resources. (2002). Dimensions and Use of the Scholarly Information Environment.

slide4

Changing Behaviors

Recent Survey:

Only 15.7% agreed with the statement “The Internet has not changed the way I use the library.”

Note. Digital Library Federation and Council on Library and Information

Resources. (2002). Dimensions and Use of the Scholarly Information Environment.

faculty dependence on electronic resources will increase
Faculty: Dependence onElectronic Resources Will Increase

“I will become increasingly dependent on electronic research resources in the future.”

http://www.arl.org/arl/proceedings/144/guthrie_files/guthrie.ppt

slide6

Research Behavior:Personal Control

When searching for print journals for research:

  • Only 13.9% ask a librarian for assistance
  • Only 3.2% consider consulting a librarian a preferred way of identifying information

Note. Digital Library Federation and Council on Library and Information

Resources. (2002). Dimensions and Use of the Scholarly Information Environment.

total circulation
Total Circulation

Note. M. Kyrillidou and M. Young. (2005). ARL Statistics 2003-04. Washington, D.C.: ARL, p.6.

reference transactions
Reference Transactions

Note. M. Kyrillidou and M. Young. (2005). ARL Statistics 2003-04. Washington, D.C.: ARL, p.6.

slide10

EnterLibQUAL+™

  • The necessity of assessment
  • Rapid shifts in information-seeking behavior
  • The reallocation of resources from traditional services and functions
the libqual premise
The LibQUAL+™ Premise

“….only customers judge quality;

all other judgments are essentially

irrelevant”

PERCEPTIONS SERVICE

Note. Zeithaml, Parasuraman, Berry. (1999).

Delivering quality service. NY: The Free Press.

slide12

13 Libraries

English LibQUAL+™ Version

4000 Respondents

LibQUAL+™ Project

PURPOSEDATAANALYSISPRODUCT/RESULT

Emergent

Describe library environment;

build theory of library service quality from user perspective

Test LibQUAL+™ instrument

Refine theory

of service quality

Refine LibQUAL+™ instrument

Test LibQUAL+™

instrument

Refine theory

2000

Unstructured interviews

at 8 ARL institutions

Web-delivered survey

Unstructured interviews at Health Sciences and the Smithsonian libraries

E-mail to survey

administrators

Web-delivered survey

Focus groups

Content analysis:

(cards & Atlas TI)

Reliability/validity

analyses: Cronbachs

Alpha, factor analysis,

SEM, descriptive statistics

Content analysis

Content analysis

Reliability/validity analyses including Cronbachs Alpha,

factor analysis, SEM, descriptive statistics

Content analysis

QUAL

QUAN

QUAL

QUAL

QUAN

QUAL

Case studies1

Valid LibQUAL+™ protocol

Scalable process

Enhanced understanding of user-centered views of service quality in the library environment2

Cultural perspective3

Refined survey delivery process and theory of service quality4

Refined LibQUAL+™ instrument5

Local contextual understanding of LibQUAL+™ survey responses6

Iterative

Vignette

Re-tooling

2005

700 Libraries English, Dutch, Swedish,

German LibQUAL+™ Versions

160,000 anticipated respondents

76 interviews conducted
76 Interviews Conducted
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Washington
  • Smithsonian
  • Northwestern Medical
  • York University
  • University of Arizona
  • Arizona State
  • University of Connecticut
  • University of Houston
  • University of Kansas
slide14

LoadedPT:P1:01xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.txt,S:\Admin\Colleen\ServQual Interviews\TEXT Only\01xxxxxxxxx.txt (redirected: c:\zz\atlasti\fred

dimensions of library service quality

Library

Service

Quality

Information

Affect of Service

Control

Empathy

Scope of Content

Responsiveness

Convenience

Assurance

Ease of Navigation

Library as Place

Reliability

Timeliness

Utilitarian space

Equipment

Symbol

-

Self

Reliance

Refuge

Model 3

Dimensions ofLibrary Service Quality
affect of service
Affect of Service

“I want to be treated with respect. I want you to be courteous, to look like you know what you are doing and enjoy what you are doing. … Don’t get into personal conversations when I am at the desk.”

Faculty member

library as place
Library as Place

“One of the cherished rituals is going up the steps and through the gorgeous doors of the library and heading up to the fifth floor to my study. … I have my books and I have six million volumes downstairs that are readily available to me in an open stack library.”

Faculty member

information control
Information Control

“…first of all, I would turn to the best search engines that are out there. That’s not a person so much as an entity. In this sense, librarians are search engines [ just ] with a different interface.”

Faculty member

information control20
Information Control

“By habit, I usually try to be self-sufficient. And I’ve found that I am actually fairly proficient. I usually find what I’m looking for eventually. So I personally tend to ask a librarian only as a last resort.”

Graduate student

multiple methods of listening to customers
Multiple Methodsof Listening to Customers
  • Transactional surveys*
  • Mystery shopping
  • New, declining, and lost-customer surveys
  • Focus group interviews
  • Customer advisory panels
  • Service reviews
  • Customer complaint, comment, and inquiry capture
  • Total market surveys*
  • Employee field reporting
  • Employee surveys
  • Service operating data capture

*A SERVQUAL-type instrument is most suitable for these methods

Note. A. Parasuraman. The SERVQUAL Model: Its Evolution And Current Status. (2000).

Paper presented at ARL Symposium on Measuring Service Quality, Washington, D.C.

libqual resources
LibQUAL+™ Resources
  • An ARL/Texas A&M University joint developmental effort based on SERVQUAL.
  • LibQUAL+™ initially supported by a 3-year grant from the U.S. Department of Education’s Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE)
  • Initial project established a expert team, re-grounded SERVQUAL concepts, and designed survey methodology
  • Survey conducted at over 700 libraries resulting in a data base of over half a million user responses
  • NSF funded project to refocus LibQUAL+™ on the National Science Digital Library (NSDL)
slide23

Participating Libraries

World LibQUAL+™ Survey 2005

rapid growth in other areas
Languages

American English

British English

French

Dutch

Swedish

In development

Chinese

Greek

Spanish

German

Consortia

Each may create 5 local questions to add to their survey

Types of Institutions

Academic Health Sciences

Academic Law

Academic Military

College or University

Community College

European Business

Hospital

Public

State

Countries

U.S., U.K., Canada, the Netherlands, South Africa, Sweden, France, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia

Rapid Growth in Other Areas
slide28

“And a Box”

Why the Box is so Important

  • About 40% of participants provide open-ended comments, and these are linked to demographics and quantitative data.
  • Users elaborate the details of their concerns.
  • Users feel the need to be constructive in their criticisms, and offer specific suggestions for action.
slide29

Understanding LibQUAL+™ Results

  • Measures the distance between minimally acceptable and desired service quality ratings
  • Perception ratings ideally fall within the Zone of Tolerance
score norms
Score Norms
  • Norm Conversion Tables facilitate the interpretation of observed scores using norms created for a large and representative sample.
  • LibQUAL+™ norms have been created at both the individual and institutional level
in closing libqual
In Closing LibQUAL+™
  • Focuses on success from the users’ point of view (outcomes)
  • Demonstrates that a web-based survey can handle large numbers; users are willing to fill it out; and survey can be executed quickly with minimal expense
  • Requires limited local survey expertise and resources
  • Analysis available at local and inter-institutional levels
  • Offers many opportunities for using demographics to discern user behaviors
libqual resources36
LibQUAL+™ Resources
  • LibQUAL+™ Website:http://www.libqual.org
  • Publications:http://www.libqual.org/publications
  • Events and Training: http://www.libqual.org/events
  • LibQUAL+™ Bibliography: http://www.coe.tamu.edu/~bthompson/servqbib
  • LibQUAL+™ Procedures Manual:http://www.libqual.org/Information/Manual/index.cfm
libqual contact information
LibQUAL+™Contact Information
  • Amy Hoseth
    • LibQUAL+™ Communications Coordinator
    • amyh@arl.org
  • Richard Groves
    • Statistics Research Assistant
    • richard@arl.org
  • MaShana Davis
    • Junior Technical Applications Developer
    • mashana@arl.org
  • Martha Kyrillidou
    • Director, ARL Statistics and Measurement Program
    • martha@arl.org