Network Management • Definition • is a set of procedure adopts to govern the operations of a network (to p2)
Network Management • Why do we need Network Management? • Reasons: • networks are company assets (for book keeping) • networks are critical resources (~20% of budget) • networks are changing/updating rapidly (changing take place in every days and weeks in ISF department) (to p3)
Network Management • Here, we concentrate on two main issues: • network security • Will not cover much here! • functions of network management (to p4) (to p6)
Network Security • Three areas to which unauthorized access to a network could take place: • 1) workstation in office • 2) dial up networking • 3) access via other networking (LAN/WAN/Internet) How to secure our network? (to p5)
Securing a Network • Four primary forms: • 1. Physical security • ensure authorized access to the hardware domain • 2. Network access control • ensure authorized personnel are only allowed, add of firewall etc. • 3. Personal security • error prevention techniques for data inputing, identification, logon time etc. • 4. Disaster Recovery Planning • plans to recovering data and access to information (to p3)
How to govern Network Management? • Need to consider the following activities: • 1. Network operations • 2. Problem management • 3. Performance measures and tuning • 4. Configuration control • 5. Change management • 6. Managing reporting (to p7) (to p10) (to p17) (to p19) (to p25) (to p29) (to p3)
1. Network operations • It is the heart of network management; whose responsibility is to manage • physical network resources (budget planning etc) • activation of components, such as lines, modems • rerouting of traffic when circuits fail to function • execution of normal and problem related procedures • Type of operations • Functions (to p8) (to p9) (to p6)
1. Network operations • Type of operations: • user workstations • Networks such as LANs, MAN, WAN, Backbone • mediums such as twisted wires, coaxial, satellite, antenna (for microwave transmission) • equipment such as FEP, modems, host computers, etc • software including applications and communications (to p7)
1. Network operations • Functions: • start/initial and shut down network components in the defined operations period (such as 10 hours for LANs, and 24 for the host computer for dial-up facilities etc) • monitoring by collecting statistical data for analysis so better services could be improved by replacing or updating current resources (to p7)
2. Problem management • Objective is to set up a procedure to handle and to document reported operations problems • typically, a help desk is set up for this purpose for most computer centers, to collect information such as • date, time, name of users, terminal being used, type of problem encountered • typical, helper desk is set to collect reported problems, as logged onto a book like Figure 13-1 (to p11) (to p12)
(to p10) FIGURE 13-1Help desk log of each reported problem.
2. Problem management • Typical, reported problems can be handled in four different ways: • Method 1: Problem Resolution Levels • Method 2: Escalation Procedures • Method 3: Bypassing the problems • Method 4: Problem diagnosis and repair (to p13) (to p14) (to p16) (to p17) (to p6)
Method 1: Problem Resolution Levels • relates to minor problems that can be resolved immediately such as storage memory, user log-on problems etc • typical, problems here can resolve in any of three levels of support: • Level 1: solve with few minutes (~80% are resolved here) • Level 2: may involve with vendor assistance(10-~15%) • Level 3: complex problems in identify and amend, need of communication engineers to modify software and hardware • Adv: • Diversification of responsibility to different level of staff (to p12)
Method 2: Escalation Procedures • this procedure is similar to the method 1,except level of problem would escalating in according to procedure displayed in Figure 13.2 • problems here usually require: • additional technical resources to solve the problems • require management awareness of the problems so that it could include in the future planning • vendors and technical staff involvement for the discussion (to p15) (to p12)
(to p14) FIGURE 13-2Problem escalation procedure.
Method 3: Bypassing the problems • occurs when a piece of equipment or circuit fail to work, so that the said problem will be bypassed • possible ways to due with it are: • substitute the spare equipment by the use of switches and patch panels • use dial up line to remove the problem Area (to p12)
Method 4: Problem diagnosis and repair • adopts when the check of alternative of choices of above were exhausted, then diagnosis of hardware are further performed • Eg. diagnostic on data transmission including the use of protocol analyzer to determine the course of errors in modems, FEP and etc (to p12)
3. Performance measures and tuning • A set of procedure uses to measure the network performance and alters its requirement to meet users’ need • typically, various of statistical data are gathered and presented in such a way that the comparison of pre-defined performance with its current reliability and response time is done, See Figure 13.3 • standard is based on the service level agreement, so that the discussions conform with guidelines (to p19) (to p6)
(to p18) FIGURE 13-3bContinued
4. Configuration control • refers to records use to documenting all configuration of networking, including equipment, cabling, typology, and its architecture • this level of control is administrated by network operations group or support group (to p21)
4. Configuration control • The following control documents/charts are used as a form of control: • 1. Topology of maps showing all connection points, Figure 13.5 • 2. Circuit charts, showing details of each circuit being adopted in different branches, Figure 13.6 • 3. Wiring diagram, uses to illustrate the layout of cabling of network, typically now based on CAD/CAM diagrams (to p22) (to p23) (to p24)
(to p21) FIGURE 13-5aMaps of typical wide-area communications networks.
(to p21) FIGURE 13-6Listing of circuits and attached controllers.
4. Configuration control • 4. Other documents include: • DRP procedures • routine operating procedures • vendor list (Approved vendor list) • software list • all these documents are typically served as part of company or departmental “Policy and Procedure”. (to p6)
5. Change management • refers to a set of activities for documenting all changes taken place in the department so that trace of records are well indexed • A “request of change” is applied when someone has requested a change in network operations, such a form looks like Figure 13.7 • Most companies would appoint a person to coordinating such request of change, and organizing a “change coordination meeting” is essential so that all related parties are informed and consulted (to p26) (to p27)
(to p25) FIGURE 13-7 A change request form that would be completed by the person requesting the change.
5. Change management • once change is made, updating documentation is a must (why?) • refer to Figure 13.8 (to p28) (to p6)
(to p27) FIGURE 13-8 A change coordination plan for a small network. Large networks would have a much more extensive list of changes.
6. Managing reporting • refers to a set of management reports, and it is prepared in a summarized format • such reports are not routine ones but to outlining exceptional events so that the management awares of their performance standards • could either be based on a formal or informal approach, which depends on individual desires • duration of coverage is varied as well, but needed to formalize it as a policy for the department (to p6)