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Identification of victims of trafficking and other vulnerable groups within mixed migratory flows arriving via sea: The ‘Lampedusa’ case. A small island of 22km 2 in the Mediterranean.

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Presentation Transcript
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Identification of victims of trafficking and other vulnerable groups within mixed migratory flows arriving via sea:

The ‘Lampedusa’ case

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During the past 7 years the southern Italian coasts have witnessed the arrival by sea of around 170.000 irregular migrants with most landings on the small island of Lampedusa

Since 2006 – within the Praesidium project - IOM, UNHCR, the Italian Red Cross and Save the Children established a stable presence on the island to enhance the capacity of the Italian Government to manage the arrivals of such migrants and guarantee the protection of most vulnerable groups

Major migratory flows come from Africa and Asia. The most important departure points are Libya, Tunisia and Egypt

some data
Some data

2013 (31° May 2013)

Lampedusa 2.224

Total Italy 4.391

2012

Lampedusa 5.034

Total Italy 13.267

2011

Lampedusa 50.483

Total Italy 62.692

2010

Lampedusa458

Total Italy 3.889

2009 9.573

2008 36.951

2007 20.455

2006 20.263

a holistic multiagency approach
A holistic multiagency approach
  • Look at mixed migratory flows as a complex phenomenon
  • Provide tailored assistance to different categories of migrants – different people/different needs
  • Ensure information sharing and referral mechanisms for further investigation and protection
mixed migratory flows arriving by sea
Mixed migratory flows arriving by sea
  • Asylum seekers – Dublin unit cases
  • Economic/voluntary migrants
  • Victims of trafficking and violence
  • Unaccompanied minors
  • Migrants with disabilities
  • Elders
  • Others (family reunification)
mixed migratory flows arriving by sea 2
Mixed migratory flows arriving by sea 2

As an example...

  • Somalis, Eritreans, Malians asylum seekers (with the goal of reaching the Nordics or UK)- Dublin cases
  • Nord African migrants coming for economic, personal, other reasons
  • Young Nigerian girls trafficked for sexual exploitation
  • Egyptian unaccompanied minors subject to labour exploitation (unaccompanied minors can’t be expelled in Italy)
  • Pakistani and Indians deceated, trafficked and used for the care of cattle in many regions of Southern of Italy
  • Most smuggled migrants end up being exploited by Italian firms or employers – collection of fruit and vegetables
  • Migrants of different nationalities that have just being denied a Visa for family reunification or other kind of Visa by EU Consulates
  • Irregular migrants that have already connections with criminal organizations (drug, etc...). Some of them re-entry
trafficking indicators for sexual exploitation at border points
Trafficking indicators for sexual exploitation at border points

More than 1350 Nigerian women arrived in 2011

  • Nationality (Nigeria – Edo State) always rural areas
  • Age 18/22 years
  • Basic level of education
  • Most of them declared to be orphan
  • Most of them declared of not having paid for the travel and to have been taken in Italy by a good samaritan
  • Partsof travel made with different accompaniers (the victim is often sold) and with forged documents
  • Durationand conditions of stay in Libya
  • Having already suffered from previous violence
  • Physical evidence (scars, abortions)
  • General immaturity
  • Oath
difficulties in ensuring protection
Difficulties in ensuring protection
  • Lack of time for trust building
  • Reluctancy to cooperate and talk to a «foreigner»
  • Trust in co - nationals
  • Fear for themselves or for possible retaliations to their family in the country of origin
  • Sense of betrayal
  • Gratitude for the traffickers
  • Non comprehension of the entity of the debth (how long does it take for me to gain 60.000 Euro?)
  • Non correct understanding of the level of exploitation
  • Migrants are invited by traffickers to abuse the asylum procedure to stay regularly in the country for a determined period
  • In some cases acquisition of more freedom (madams let the migrants keep some gainings)
victims of trafficking protection schemes and referral mechanisms upon landing
Victims of trafficking – protection schemes and referral mechanisms upon landing

What we can do:

  • Information sessions dedicated to women (risk: the trafficker might be in the group) – with cultural mediators
  • Distribution of information leaflet with hot line number
  • Individual counselling, trust bulding and case assesment
  • Referral to police and judicial authority in Lampedusa and Sicily – where applicable
  • Referral to medical/psyco support when requested or needed
  • Request to the competent authorities to trasfer the victim in a protected enviroment
  • Request the police and the judicial authorityto release the residence permits ex art 18 – Italian Immigration Act (two path approach);
other mechanisms envisaged for vulnerable migrants upon arrival
Other mechanisms envisaged for vulnerable migrants upon arrival
  • Access to asylum procedures and transfer to ad hoc reception centers for status determination (legal counselling)
  • Special assistance for unaccompanied minors (correct age determination, assistance in collecting documentation, transfer in special structures)
  • Migrants that cooperate with police in the identification of traffickers (case assesment, transfer to specialised structures that provide them with legal assistance, orientation and release of temporary residence permit)
  • Dublin cases and family reunification (specific legal counselling)
  • Assistance to migrants that can not be expelled i.e pregnant women, persons with particular deseases or vulnerabilities (individual counselling and referral)
enhancement of investigative measures at landing points
Enhancement of investigative measures at landing points
  • Enhancement of multiagency approach
  • Secondment of cultural mediators with specific experience
  • Need to investigate more on the trafficking crime (not only smuggling)
  • Promotion of protection schemes that envisage the immediate transfer in shelters of the victims and the release of temporary permits to stay
  • Group counselling sessions on trafficking risks and irregular stay
  • Dissemination of information booklet and hotline numbers for further assistance
  • Ensuring ad hoc funding for such activities
thank you
Thank you

Simona Moscarelli

Migration Law expert

IOM Rome

0039 06 44 186235

smoscarelli@iom.int