Rule 5: Parenthetical Expressions These are unnecessary words that interrupt a sentence. They don’t add additional information. Example Phrases: I believe, I think, on the other hand, in my opinion, however, in fact. . .
Examples: Our grandma, I suppose, is not what you would call a traditional grandmother. I wouldn’t, however, expect her to call you before ten. High school I have learned is a critical time in the development of one’s character. Shakespeare of course is one of the most talented writers of all time.
Rule 6: Compound Sentences • Two sentences that are joined by a comma and coordinating conjunction… • Coordinating Conjunctions For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
Coordinating Conjunctions 1. Matt photographed the event, and he sold his pictures to the newspaper. 2. Marilena photographed the event and Tony reported it. 3. Most of the photographs were beautiful, however, some were blurry.
Rule 7: Items in a Series • You do not have to put the comma before the last item in a series unless it will help make the meaning more clear to the reader… • For example: • My favorite foods are spaghetti, macaroni and cheese and french fries. - My favorite foods are spaghetti, macaroni and cheese, and french fries.
Linking Parallel Phrases • Use the “Items in a Series” rule to link phrases together… • He ran down the street, across the park and into the arms of his father. • Shelley has dark brown eyes, straight black hair, and pearly white teeth.
Rule 8: Long Introductory Prepositional Phrases • The general rule for “long” is 4 or more words. • During the past three years, I have failed 2 classes that I need to graduate. • Before the arrival of the shipment, the restaurant had to make its own sweet tea.
Comma Splice • Two independent clauses with only a comma between them. • The weather was disappointing, we cancelled the picnic. • The accident was heartbreaking, there were no survivors