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Interference Assisted Lithography (IAL): A Way to Contain the Lithography Costs for the 32nm and 22nm Half-Pitch Device Generations . Rudi Hendel; David Markle; John S. Petersen; Andrew Barada; Periodic Structures, Inc. Zhilong Rao Applied Materials, Inc. . Presentation Overview.

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slide1

Interference Assisted Lithography (IAL): A Way to Contain the Lithography Costs for the 32nm and 22nm Half-Pitch Device Generations

Rudi Hendel; David Markle; John S. Petersen; Andrew Barada;

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Zhilong Rao

Applied Materials, Inc.

presentation overview
Presentation Overview
  • Semiconductor Manufacturing Costs:A quick calibration
  • Cost Model OverviewBasics and Assumptions
  • Interference Assisted LithographyAn introduction into the Concept
  • Process and Lithography-related cost factors and their impact
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusions

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

lithography is a bargain

Pixel Transfer Rate

“Lithography is a Bargain!*”

* Paul Arnold, ASML at the VLSI Litho Panel 2008 (November 18, 2008)

450mm projections

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

still time for reality check comparing the price tag for a fab with
Still – Time for Reality Check: (Comparing the price-tag for a Fab with….)

Megafab:

$6B to $10B

$5B

$3B

$1B

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

should the size of fab price tags be a concern
Should the size of Fab Price Tags be a concern?

Yes

Bob Johnson (Gartner DQ) at ISS 2009

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

the basis of our cost model

Tool component – Depreciation and Tool Maintenance

Allocation of Mask Cost

Process Cost (Resist, Develop, BARC, Metrology, Inspection, etc.

The basis of our Cost Model:

Model by “Screenivasan et al.” as quoted by Frank Goodwin, November 7, 2005 – Trends in the Cost of Photolithography

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

cost of lithography
Direct Impact Costs

Cost and Complexity of the Patterning Process

Cost of additional Tools required (ex.: S.I.T.)

Cost of Mask(s)

Depreciation Cost and Maintenance Expense of the Exposure Tool

Tool Price to Customer

Effective Throughput

Scheduled & unscheduled Maintenance

Indirect Impact Costs(Factors of high importance to a customer on which the Choice of Lithography has a critical impact)

Cost of Design

Time to Design Implementation

Risk of First Silicon Fail

Cost of Lithography

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

slide8

Per Yan Borodovsky; Semicon West; July 15, 2009

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

how to reduce cost start with the tool

Pixel Transfer Rate

How to reduce cost? Start with the Tool

Either:

Simplify the pattern, reducing Pixel Transfer Rate which leads to lower capital cost

Or:

Trade off general purpose capabilitywith acceptable restrictionsleading to cost savings

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

effective means to segment and reduce information content contained in a pattern
Effective Means to segment (and reduce) Information Content contained in a pattern:
  • Interference Assisted Lithography
    • It separates high frequency component of the image (dense line-spaces) from the design content (line-ends)
  • Simplified Imaging Rules allow lower tool cost
    • without sacrificing minimum resolution
  • Several technology approaches are available
    • Ultimate Selection will accommodate key requirements in both, logic and memory.

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

what is interference assisted lithography
What is Interference Assisted Lithography?
  • I.A.L. is a two-exposure process:
    • Exposure One – Fixed Pitch Pattern (a grating)
    • Exposure Two – a Block-Mask, determining where the lines defined in the first exposure end and start

+

=

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

the i a l technology principle has been demonstrated
The I.A.L. Technology Principle has been demonstrated

Source: MIT Lincoln Lab (2005)

M. Fritze, T. M. Bloomstein, B. Tyrrell, T. H. Fedynyshyn, N. N. Efremow, D. E. Hardy, S. Cann, D. Lennon, S. Spector and M. Rothschild, “Hybrid Optical Maskless Lithography: Scaling Beyond the 45nm Node”, J. Vac, Sci. and Tech. B 23(6) (2005), pp. 2743–2748.

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

benefits of interference based exposure tools
Benefits of Interference-based Exposure Tools
  • Cost benefits
    • Simplified Optics and thus lower Tool Cost
    • OL requirements for IAL are relaxed compared to OL requirements for traditional Double Patterning
    • Significant savings in Cost of MasksIAL requires 1 critical mask,Double Patterning requires 2 +
  • Technical Benefits
    • Wider process window
    • Increased Contrast/DOF

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

double patterning comparing traditional d p vs i a l d p
Double Patterning: – Comparing Traditional D.P. vs. I.A.L. D.P.

The reduced Cost of Masksgives IAL DP a30% cost benefit compared to Traditional DP(Independent ofMask Usage)

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

total litho cost by node assignment of mask levels
Total Litho Cost by Node:Assignment ofMask Levels

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

total projected lithography cost traditional d p vs i a l d p
Total projected Lithography CostTraditional D.P. vs. I.A.L. D.P.

Traditional Double Patterning

Cost of Lithography per Wafer

I.A.L. Double Patterning

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

total projected lithography cost hypothetical case of replacing all euv layers with ial
Total projected Lithography Cost Hypothetical Case of replacing all EUV Layers with IAL

Cost of Lithography for the Node

Traditional Double Patterning

I.A.L. Double Patterning

Only I.A.L. DP for Critical Layers

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

additional benefits possible with i a l system architecture dependent
Additional Benefits Possible with I.A.L.(System Architecture Dependent)
  • Reduced Capital Cost benefits all Lot Sizes
  • In the case of a reduced Exposure Field (Not all applications require large Exposure Fields)
    • Further Mask Cost Reduction
      • Minimizing write/inspection costs
      • Particularly benefitting small lot sizes, which are highly sensitive to Mask Cost
    • Reduced Systems Cost (Stepper architecture allows systems simplifications)
    • Additional efficiency particularly for small devices (somewhat counterintuitive)

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

mask cost vs mask patterned area
Mask Cost vs. Mask Patterned Area

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

cost of lithography comparison traditional scanner vs i a l stepper
Cost of Lithography Comparison – Traditional Scanner vs. I.A.L. Stepper

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

i a l limitations
I.A.L. Limitations
  • High Regularity requires Design Restrictions
    • I.A.L. Restrictions are similar to Sidewall Image Transfer (S.I.T.) Restrictions
      • Yet, S.I.T. is considered as one viable option for extending resolution.
      • Designs compatible with S.I.T. are expected to be compatible with I.A.L..
    • Adopting such restrictions early and transitioning to regularity in one single step promises significant cost benefits.

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

in summary cost benefits of i a l
In Summary – Cost Benefits of I.A.L.:

Direct:

  • Significant reduction of Mask Cost
    • Comparable layers (vs. traditional DP)
  • Containment of Litho Cost Increases
    • If applied to all Critical Levels in the process flow
  • Additional Benefits are possible:
    • Reduced Die Size, Small Lot-size, (leading to smaller Exposure Fields)
    • Enhanced Maskless Lithography Economics
      • Reduced Image (Pixel) Density for Block Mask
      • Enables competitive MLL Throughput (prototyping)

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

in summary cost benefits of i a l23
In Summary – Cost Benefits of I.A.L.:

Indirect:

  • I.A.L. can become a Technology Enabler for a market segment currently underserved:
    • Opening Access to Leading Edge Geometries for low/medium mask usage applications (ASIC/ASSP) by:
      • Reduced Mask Costs (and Capital Cost)
      • Simplified DR complexity
      • Reduced time to Design Completion
      • Reduced risk to first time success

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Al Bergendahl, Bergendahl Enterprises
  • Marc Levenson
  • Mark Pinto, Applied Materials
  • Hans Stork, Applied Materials
  • Bill Tobey, ACT Consulting

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague

thank you
Thank you!

Periodic Structures, Inc.

Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague