Educational Research. Chapter 8. Tools of Research. Scales and instruments – measure complex characteristics such as intelligence and achievement Scales and instruments may be: (1) Selected or (2) Developed by the researcher If selected:
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Types of scales and instruments:
Achievement Tests – measure mastery and proficiency in different areas of knowledge (e.g., California Achievement Test in reading, language, arithmetic)
Standardized Tests – can compare the results of studies that use the same tests
Standardized and Researcher-made may be (1) norm-referenced or (2) criterion referenced
Thesetypes of test enable the researcher to compare the individuals’ performance on the tests to the performance of other individuals (e.g., use of percentiles). Items will yield a wide range of scores. Performance of individual is interpreted in terms of relative position in a specified reference group.
This type of test enables researchers to describe what a specific individual can do, without reference to the performance of others. Performance is reported in terms of the level of mastery of some defined content or skill domain – usually report the percentage of items answered correctly – important to have a representative set of items
Testing is moving from paper and pencil tests to computer-based testing.
An attitude may be defined as a positive or negative affect toward a particular group, institution, concept, or social object
Scale is a set of categories or numeric values assigned to individuals, objects, or behaviors for the purpose of measuring variables; use a scale to measure the attitudes of mothers toward inclusion for example.
Attitude scales use multiple responses – responses from questions – and combine the responses into a single scale score.
Think of subtopics relating to the attitude and then write items on each subtopic