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Drugs and prep for test II. Alcohol . Caffeine. Most widely used drug, 90% Can lead to dependency Once removed, headaches and drowsiness Stimulant Speeds up the functioning of the brain. Depressant Act out Reckless behavior Lessons our inhibitions by turning off our frontal lobe.

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Most widely used drug, 90%

Can lead to dependency

Once removed, headaches and drowsiness


Speeds up the functioning of the brain

  • Depressant
    • Act out
    • Reckless behavior
    • Lessons our inhibitions by turning off our frontal lobe
narcotics morphine heroine pain killers

Derived from opium

    • Natural substance
  • Why they wreak havoc
    • Produce drowsiness
    • Insensitivity to pain
    • Eliminates pain and anxiety
      • Duplicating Endorphins
NarcoticsMorphineHeroinePain Killers

From the leaves of the Coca plant

  • Euphoric sense of happiness and increased activity
  • Stimulant
  • Powerful
    • Prevents the terminal buttons from reabsorbing dopamine
    • Works as an anesthetic

Intensifies sensory experiences

  • Attach to receptors that are related to long term memory
  • Amotivational syndrome
  • Coupled with well established barriers to learning, pot smoking can cause people to waste a lot of time and money
  • Brain development is affected
medical benefits
Research shows that marijuana aids some medical conditions

Chemotherapy problems – decreases vomiting, nausea, and anxiety

Aids – improves appetite

Pain and muscle spasms – decreases these plus depression

Glaucoma – decreases pressure on eye

Medical benefits

Hallucinogens, similar to mushrooms

    • Intensification of sensations and experiences
    • Dream like state
  • Mescaline, better known as peyote, isderived from a Chihuahan cactus found in Texas and Mexico
  • It has been used medicinally and sacramental for thousands of years
  • US government allows its use in Native
  • American religions
  • Comes from cactus buttons
dopamine reward system

Dopamine is released

    • Pleasure follows
      • This nudges us into eating, drinking, and other beneficial behaviors
  • Years of research has revealed that ingesting many drugs also causes dopamine to be released
  • The dopamine circuit begins in the ventral tegmentalarea
    • synthesizes dopamine which it passes to the
      • Nucleus accumbenswhich then connects through its axons to areas of the frontal lobes
  • Continued use of some drugs (opiates) causes neurons to shrink or otherwise work less effectively, forcing the user to rely on the drug for pleasure.
Dopamine reward system
5 stages of sleep

Stage 1 –brain is slowing down

  • Stage 2 – 4 waves slow gradually and become increasingly rhythmic, indicating less activity, eyes still inactive
  • After Stage 4, we move back through Stages 3 and then 2, but instead of then going into Stage 1, we enter into ….
  • REM sleep in which our eyes suddenly move about, as if we were awake, and our brain waves become fast and choppy like Stage 1
  • These cycles run for about 90 minutes
5 stages of sleep
cerebral lobes

Occipital lobe

    • Located in the lower back region of the head
    • Contains many specialized areas relating to different aspects of vision, especially the primary visual center
    • Many links to the temporal for visual tasks
  • Parietal
    • Primarily devoted to the sense of touch
    • Contains the primary somatosensorycortex
    • Area within it is taken up by the parts of the skin
    • Also tells us where we are in space relative to the objects around us
Cerebral Lobes
cerebral lobes1


    • Its back region contains the primary motor cortex which takes information from the primary somatosensory cortex and then moves the body’s muscles
    • Similarly, the parts of the body with more sophisticated muscle systems have more space in the primary motor cortex devoted to them
  • Temporal
    • Contains the primary auditory cortex
    • Much of it is used for complex visual tasks in conjunction with the primary visual cortex
    • These include recognizing faces and perceiving motion
    • Also crucial to memory
    • In the left hemisphere, aids language skills
Cerebral Lobes
important information

Central Nervous System

  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic Nervous system
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System
  • MRI
  • Basic Types of Neurons
  • Corpus Callosom
  • Left brain equals language
  • Brain Structure
    • Hindbrain
    • Hippocampus
    • Amygdala
Important information