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Constructing a Short Story. The do’s and Don'ts of creative writing. Year Nine English Miss Cobby Justin Tronerud. Today . Review yesterday We will begin to explore what makes a short story Audience Free writing exercise Share some of our ideas Register and voice

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constructing a short story

Constructing a Short Story

The do’s and Don'ts of creative writing

Year Nine English

Miss Cobby

Justin Tronerud

today
Today
  • Review yesterday
  • We will begin to explore what makes a short story
  • Audience
  • Free writing exercise
  • Share some of our ideas
  • Register and voice
  • Planning your story – mind map and story boarding
  • Discussion – free writing versus planning
yesterday
Yesterday
  • Genre – a way to categories different types or writing
  • Ghost stories :
  • fiction that includes a ghost or the possibility of ghosts
  • uses our fear of the unknown to create suspense
  • merges the living with the dead
  • draw on out experiences of what happens to those left behind after a death
  • commonly deal with a violent or early death of the ghost or spirit
  • place, time , objects or scents may take on symbolic experience
  • LEAVE THE READER GUESSING!
yesterday1
Yesterday
  • Crime and Detection:
  • fictionalises crime, detection, criminals and their motives
  • usually leaves a trail of clues
  • will often try to mislead the reader by leaving false clues – Red Herrings
  • will often deal with the idea of crime bringing chaos and disorder to an otherwise ordered world
  • threatens the comfort and calm world of the middle class
  • offer reassurance that the crime will always be solved in the end
yesterday2
Yesterday
  • Love Stories:
  • usually deal with love
  • love of a parent and child, platonic love, or the intense feeling between lovers.
  • central love story – usually centres around two people trying to make their love work
  • emotionally satisfying love story – risk or struggle rewarded with emotionally satisfying ending
what will our writing need to include
What will our writing need to include
  • The audience – Thinking about writing
  • Register and voice
  • Narrative perspective
  • Plot
  • Image and symbol
  • Editing and revising
who is your audience
Who is your Audience?
  • When we write we must consider:
  • Why do we write?
  • Who is our audience?
  • What is its purpose?
  • What are we trying to achieve? (feelings/emotional response)
  • Free writing exercise – WRITE, write anything that springs into you head. Get it on paper, quickly and unedited!
  • N.B. This could be the beginning of you short story but it doesn’t have to be!
register and voice
Register and Voice
  • Real Speech Sentences
  • are sometimes left unfinished
  • jump from one thought to another
  • are sometimes ungrammatical
  • need physical gestures to make the meaning clear
  • are sometimes rambling
  • are sometimes repetitious
register and voice1
Register and Voice
  • Dialogue in Fiction
  • a story can have no dialogue at all or can be virtually all dialogue
  • dialogue should be consistent with the characters and personalities of the speakers
  • dialogue should advance the action, and should not be used as padding
  • you can set out dialogue conventionally, on a separate line between quotation marks, or it can blend with the rest of the text
  • dialogue should vary from speaker to speaker, varying in vocabulary, pace, rhythm , phrasing and sentence length
register and voice2
Register and Voice
  • A Few Do Not’s With Dialogue
  • try not to have too many characters talking in a scene
  • do not use dialogue to convey information about setting or plot!
  • don’t use dialogue to convey the mundane realities of everyday communication
  • DON’T use ‘he said’ or ‘she said; all of the time
  • Exercise : Read ‘The Father’ then write five pieces of dialogue that don’t use ‘he said’ or ‘she said’!
  • Start thinking about which genre you are going to use for the summative task!
last time
Last Time
  • Why do we write?
  • to pass on knowledge and information
  • entertainment
  • convey emotions and feelings
  • Remember: Consider your audience and make your writing appropriate.
last time1
Last Time
  • Register and Voice
  • keep you dialogue real, some sentences don’t finish properly, can use improper grammar, can be rambling and repetitious.
  • need physical gestures to make the meaning clear
  • a story can have no dialogue at all or can be virtually all dialogue
  • dialogue should be consistent with the characters and personalities of the speakers
  • you can set out dialogue conventionally, on a separate line between quotation marks, or it can blend with the rest of the text
  • dialogue should vary from speaker to speaker, varying in vocabulary, pace, rhythm , phrasing and sentence length
last time2
Last Time
  • Register and Voice - A Few Don’ts
  • try not to have too many characters talking in a scene
  • do not use dialogue to convey information about setting or plot!
  • don’t use dialogue to convey the mundane realities of everyday communication
  • DON’T use ‘he said’ or ‘she said; all of the time
narrative perspective
Narrative perspective
  • “Point of view”
  • When we read we hear an imagined voice telling, or transmitting, the story to us.
  • We ask questions about the voice which will help us understand the ways in which the “voice” was created.
  • Who’s telling the story?
  • In what form do they speak?
  • Who are they speaking to?
  • How much do they know?
  • Are they telling the truth?
narrative perspective1
Narrative perspective
  • “Point of view”
  • Has been described as the relation in which the narrator stands in the story.
  • The idea of ‘point of view’ helps us to understand which vantage point the action is being viewed from.
  • Therefore which ‘narrative perspective’ is being used
  • In your books write the following headings:
  • First person
  • Second Person
  • Omniscient
narrative perspective2
Narrative perspective
  • First Person
  • The narrator is a character
  • Uses the ‘I’ form of address
  • The oldest form or story-telling and still very popular
  • The first person can be the all-important character, and the main interest in the story (first person participant)
  • OR
  • Act as a recording pair of eyes, memory and the central interest is what he/she sees (first person observer)
narrative perspective3
Narrative perspective
  • First Person
  • The first person perspective creates intimacy, a voice speaking directly to the reader.
  • First person narratives give the illusion of seeming closest to ‘real life’ storytelling.
narrative perspective4
Narrative perspective
  • Second Person
  • The author creates a character to tells the story using the ‘you’ form of address.
  • Rarely used as the author obviously knows little about the reader.
  • Can give the reader a feeling of overpowering intimacy.
narrative perspective5
Narrative perspective
  • Omniscient Narrative
  • The narrator is usually an uninvolved, uncharacterised voice.
  • Tells the story using the ‘he’ or ‘she’ form of address.
  • Third person total omniscient relates external events (action, dialogue) with God-like power. Is all-seeing and all-knowing.
  • Third person selective omniscient offers a narrator who reveals thoughts of one or two characters
  • Third person limited omniscient offers a narrator whose knowledge is limited to ordinary human powers of observation
last time3
Last time
  • ‘Point of view’
  • Who’s telling the story?
  • In what form do they speak?
  • Who are they speaking to?
  • How much do they know?
  • Are they telling the truth?
last time4
Last time
  • ‘Narrative Perspective’
  • First Person - The first person perspective creates
  • intimacy, a voice speaking directly to the reader.
  • Second Person - The author creates a character to tells
  • the story using the ‘you’ form of address.
  • Use caution! Second person narratives can give the reader a feeling of overpowering intimacy.
  • Omniscient Narrative - The narrator is usually an uninvolved, uncharacterised
  • voice. Tells the story using the ‘he’ or ‘she’ form of address.
  • Third person total omniscient relates external events (action, dialogue) with God-like power. Is all-seeing and all-knowing.
  • Third person selective omniscient offers a narrator who reveals thoughts of one or two characters
  • Third person limited omniscient offers a narrator whose knowledge is limited to ordinary human powers of observation
plot telling good stories
Plot – Telling good stories
  • Plot – may be defined as the arrangement of events in a
  • Story
  • how events are arranged
  • what connects these events
  • Types of plot
  • Linear Plot
  • Non-linear Plot
plot telling good stories1
Plot – Telling good stories
  • Linear Plot – represents a common-sense idea about time.
  • it is chronological
  • follows a sequence
  • of events
plot telling good stories2
Plot – Telling good stories
  • Non-linear Plot – represents a common-sense idea about time.
  • Less emphasis on events being chronological
  • events are not in order, they must be connected
  • is useful for omens, prophecies, visions and dreams.
  • ‘story within a story’
image and symbol
Image and Symbol
  • Imagery - in literature is used to paint a mental image of
  • something. The techniques used are descriptive and paint a picture
  • that allows the reader to visualize the setting, person, or image that
  • is intended to be conveyed.
  • ‘The old farm encrusted with barren soil and remnants of long
  • decayed crops stood lonely and isolated as the wind pounded its
  • walls.’
  • Try writing your own sentence using imagery
image and symbol1
Image and Symbol
  • Symbolism - is often used by writers to enhance their writing.
  • Symbolism can give a literary work more richness and colour and can
  • make the meaning of the work deeper.
  • In literature, symbolism can take many forms including:
  • A figure of speech where an object, person, or situation has another meaning other than its literal meaning.
  • The actions of a character, word, action, or event that have a deeper meaning in the context of the whole story.
image and symbol2
Image and Symbol
  • Symbolismis found in colours:
  • Blackis used to represent death or evil.
  • White stands for life and purity.
  • Redcan symbolize blood, passion, danger, or immoral character.
  • Purple is a royal colour.
  • Yellow stands for violence or decay.
  • Bluerepresents peacefulness and calm.
image and symbol3
Image and Symbol
  • Metaphors As Symbolism
  • A metaphor is a figure of speech that uses symbolism.
  • It compares two things that are not similar and shows that they actually do have something in common.
  • In a metaphor, there is an additional meaning to a word. This makes it an example of symbolism.
  • He is a rock: This is symbolic because it signifies that he is strong and dependable.
  • Love is a jewel: This is symbolic because it suggests that love is rare and pressure.
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