Twenty Questions Evolution, Adaptation, & Fossils
1. Which is an adaptation that makes it possible for the animal to survive in a cold climate? • Tail on a lizard • Scales on a fish • Stripes on a tiger • Fur on a bear
2. The color of a snowshoe rabbit changes from brown to white as winter approaches. How does this adaptation help this rabbit? • It makes food easier to find in winter • It camouflages the rabbit from predators • It allows the rabbit to sneak up on its prey • It keeps the rabbit cool in summer and warm in winter
3. An animal that has thick fur, webbed flippers, and blubber would probably live in • The Arctic Ocean • The Amazon rainforest • A large freshwater lake • The Mojave desert in California
4. Certain species of orchids have flowers that look like female bees. This provides an advantage to the orchids by • Helping to trap moisture • Attracting male bees to transfer pollen • Discouraging flies from landing on the flowers • Attracting birds that eat the flowers
5. A species of rabbit that is found in hot desert environments has longer ears than other rabbits. How are long ears an advantage to desert rabbits? • Long ears help the rabbit to hear rattlesnakes better. • Blood flowing in long, thin ears is a cooling mechanism • The rabbit uses its long ears to signal other rabbits of danger • Long ears help rabbits locate mates in the desert.
6. The theory of evolution is based upon what general principle? • Individuals must adapt to environmental changes • Mutations generally produce stronger organisms • The most fit organisms survive to reproduce • All organisms will eventually adapt to changes.
7. Which adaptation allows giraffes to feed on a diet of leaves from treetops? • Type of skin covering • Body structure • Sense of smell • Visual ability
8. The way a plant or animal species adjusts to the environment is knows as • Variation • Behavior • Adaptation • Existence
9. The praying mantis has few predators. Yet it is adapted to look just like the twigs and small branches where it is usually found. This adaptation helps the praying mantis to survive by… • Hiding it from other predators looking for the same food • Hiding it while it waits for its prey • Keeping its body at the same temperature as its environment • Allowing it to avoid others of its own kind
10. All of the following behaviors are adaptations characteristic of desert animals EXCEPT • Being active only at night • Swallowing their prey whole • Getting water by eating plants • Staying buried during the day
11. In terms of the theory of natural selection, which explains why giraffes have come to have such long necks? • Stretching to get food in high trees made their necks longer, and this trait was passed to offspring • Giraffes prefer other giraffes that have long necks as their mates • Giraffe food contains hormones that cause their vertebrae to lengthen • Giraffes born with the longest necks stayed alive when food was scarce and passed this trait on to their offspring.
12. Adaptation refers to gradual changes in a group of organisms that are necessary for a species to survive. Adaptation is a result of • Inheritable differences • Homeostasis • Inbreeding • Extinction
13. The night hawk is a bird that, when roosting, stays parallel to the branch it is on. Its color and spotting is much like the tree branch it rests on. This adaptation is an example of… • Mimicry • Survival of the fittest • Protective coloration • Selective predation
14. Fossils of animals the size of goats were dated at 5 million years old. Similarly, fossils of larger animals were dated at 3 million years old. Both animals were similar in body structure to today’s horses. Using these data, which inference can scientists make? • The animals were probably ancestors of today’s horses • The animals had no relationship to one another • Today’s horses and these animals probably lived together at some time in the past. • Today’s horses are faster than these animals were
15. Animal fossils are more plentiful than plant fossils because animals contain • Hard parts such as bones, teeth, and shells • Soft parts such as flesh and hair • Large amounts of water • Small amounts of chemicals
16. Some fossils are shaped like the clams that are alive today. This tells us that • Clams turn into fossils very quickly • Other living things can look like clams • Clams became extinct, and then new ones grew • Clams have been on earth for a very long time
17. Giant fossil ferns have been found in Canada. Which conclusion can be drawn from this discovery? • Canada once had a much warmer climate • Giant dragonflies once lived among the ferns • Canada was once covered by an ancient sea • Dinosaurs once lived in Canada
18. Geologists learn what organisms were like in the past by studying… • Minerals • Water • Fossils • atmosphere
19. A population of mosquitoes is sprayed with a new insecticide. Most of the mosquitoes are killed but a few survive. In the next generation, the spraying continues, but still more mosquitoes hatch that are unaffected by the insecticide. Which of the following best explains these results? • The insecticide caused a mutation in the genes of immune mosquitoes • The mosquitoes learned how to fight the insecticide • A few mosquitoes in the first population were immune and passed this trait to their offspring • The insecticide caused the mosquitoes to develop an immune response that was inherited.
20. Five hundred grasshoppers of one species were sprayed with a new insecticide. Twenty-four hours later nearly all the grasshoppers were dead. A few, however, survived. This outcome illustrates which one of Darwin’s key ideas? • There are variations among individuals within species. • Grasshoppers like new environments • All living things come from pre-existing living things • New species develop from survivors.