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MASA GEOLOGI. FIELD & LAB. WHERE. KEGUNAAN. MASA GEOLOGI. WHY STUDY. PETA GEOLOGI. ASAS KAJIAN. SKALA. KAJIAN TAPAK. MASA NISBI MASA MUTLAK. KAEDAH TAKRIF. AGE OF THE EARTH .

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slide1

MASA

GEOLOGI

slide2

FIELD & LAB

WHERE

KEGUNAAN

MASA GEOLOGI

WHY STUDY

PETA

GEOLOGI

ASAS

KAJIAN

SKALA

KAJIAN

TAPAK

MASA NISBI

MASA MUTLAK

KAEDAH

TAKRIF

age of the earth
AGE OF THE EARTH

Ancient rocks exceeding 3.5 billion years in age are found on all of Earth's continents. The oldest rocks on Earth found so far are the Acasta Gneisses in northwestern Canada near Great Slave Lake (4.03 Ga) and the Isua Supracrustal rocks in West Greenland (3.7 to 3.8 Ga), but well-studied rocks nearly as old are also found in the Minnesota River Valley and northern Michigan (3.5-3.7 billion years), in Swaziland (3.4-3.5 billion years), and in Western Australia (3.4-3.6 billion years).

age of the universe
Age of the universe

The age of 4.54 billion years found for the Solar System and Earth is consistent with current calculations of 11 to 13 billion years for the age of the Milky Way Galaxy (based on the stage of evolution of globular cluster stars) and the age of 10 to 15 billion years for the age of the Universe (based on the recession of distant galaxies).

konsep masa
Konsep masa

Dulu kini masa depan

Past present future

TUA MUDA

LAMA BARU

konsep masa dari sudut pandangan
Konsep masa: Dari sudut pandangan
  • Ahli sains masa lampau
  • Ahli sains masa kini
  • Ahli geologi/kajibumi masa lampau
  • Ahli geologi/kajibumi masa kini
  • Ahli sains Muslim?
  • Jurutera?
uniformitarianism teori keseragaman
Uniformitarianism/Teori Keseragaman
  • The present is the key to the past

Maksud:

Apa jua proses geologi yg berlaku pada hari ini juga berlaku di masa yg lepas/lampau

Contoh: luluhawa, ledakan gunung berapi, gempa bumi, hakisan, pengangkutan, pemendapan, dll

slide10
Revolution Number One Observation as a Source of Knowledge
  • Principle of Original Horizontality
  • Principle of Superposition
masa geologi
Masa geologi
  • Panjang & pendek
  • Cuba memahami proses kejadian alam (fauna, flora, manusia sebagai makhluk istimewa)
  • Cuba memahami produk (kejadian mineral & batuan, logam/bukan logam) untuk manafaat dunia sejagat
  • Cuba memahami persekitaran untuk kegunaan manusia
  • Bagi jurutera memahami ragam produk dan persekitaran (perubahan yang akan berlaku yg mungkin boleh mengubah struktur rekaan mereka)
kitar batuan
Kitar batuan

Mana dia

proses?

Produk?

slide13

SEDIAKALA/

BERUBAH/

DIUBAH

ENVIROMEN

PROSES PRODUK

Peranan jurutera? Mampukah mereka

memahami ragam persekitaran yang berubah/diubah?

kepentingan masa geologi
Kepentingan masa geologi
  • Kajian proses dan produk
  • Kajian persekitaran asal ke baru
  • Kajian ragam proses-produk-persekitaran

KAJIAN TAPAK

(SITE INVESTIGATION)

kajian tapak site investigation
KAJIAN TAPAK (SITE INVESTIGATION)
  • Memerlukan penggunaan Peta Geologi dan Peta Topo => surface dan subsurface geologi
  • Peta: merakamkan taburan batuan dan sedimen, persekitaran, rupa bentuk bumi, air, aktiviti ekonomi (kuari, perlombongan, pertanian, dll)
  • Kegunaan peta: pelbagai (ketenteraan, keselamatan, persekitaran tabii, ecotourism,dll)
slide16
Sebagai ahli sains asas, sains gunaan atau jurutera, kita mesti menghargai maklumat dan sumbangan yg dibuat demi kepentingan bersama
  • Jurutera mengolah enviromen tabii kepada yg baru
  • Perubahan yg dibuat menuntut kita ….
slide17
Jurutera mesti berupaya membaca peta dan mentafsir (dari descriptive ke interpretive science)

The progress

Of science

Observation

Hypothesis

Prediction

Decision Falsification

Confirmation

Observation

masa geologi nisbi relative
Masa Geologi: nisbi (relative)

Tujuan: Order events from oldest to youngest (meletak sesuatu peristiwa yang berlaku mengikut tertib dari tua ke muda)

  • Principle of superposition
  • Principle of original horizontality
  • Principle of lateral continuity
  • Principle of cross-cutting relationship
  • Principle of inclusions
  • Principle of faunal succession
masa geologi mutlak absolute
Masa Geologi: mutlak (absolute)

1 Methods relying on event in the geological record with strong annual cyclicity

  • Tree growth rings
  • Coral growth cycles
  • Varves (annual clay sediment layers)

2 Decay of radiogenic isotopes (using concept of half-life)

1 principle of superposition prinsip supertindanan
1 Principle of superposition (Prinsip supertindanan)
  • States that in an undisturbed stack of sedimentary strata the oldest layer is at the base and the youngest at the top

youngest

C

B

A

oldest

2 principle of original horizontality prinsip pendataran asal
2 Principle of original horizontality (Prinsip pendataran asal)
  • States that sedimentary strata were deposited in nearly horizontal layers
  • If flay lying layers are observed to be folded in a complex fashion, then folding must have followed the deposition of the layers
3 principle of lateral continuity prinsip keselanjaran sisi
3 Principle of lateral continuity (Prinsip keselanjaran sisi)
  • States that sediments extends laterally until it thins or pinches out against the margin of the basin in which it is accumulating
  • Uninterrupted exposures – rare to find

=> necessary to correlate from one exposure to the next to determine how extensive some of these units really are

principle of cross cutting relationships prinsip hubung silang
Principle of cross-cutting relationships (Prinsip hubung silang)
  • States that if unit or event A cuts across unit or event B, then A is younger than B
masa nisbi
Masa nisbi

Susun lapisan dari paling tua ke paling muda

tugasan masa nisbi
Tugasan: masa nisbi

Susun lapisan dari paling tua ke paling muda

tugasan masa nisbi32
Tugasan: Masa nisbi

Susun lapisan dari paling tua ke paling muda

5 principle of inclusions
5 Principle of inclusions
  • States that inclusions of rock A in rock B must be older than rock B
6 principle of faunal succession prinsip jujukan fauna
6 Principle of faunal succession (Prinsip jujukan fauna)
  • states that fossil assemblages succeed one another through time in a regular and predictable order.
unconformities ketakselarasan
Unconformities (Ketakselarasan)
  • In a stack of sedimentary layers, some of them are missing through natural process (such as weathering and erosion) across a boundary. These breaks are called unconformities (ketakselarasan)
slide40
unconformities refers to the surface between two layers that were not laid down in an unbroken sequence
types of unconformites
Types of unconformites
  • Disconformity
  • Angular unconformity
  • Nonconformity
slide42
A disconformity is an unconformity in which the upper set of strata (the younger set) overlies an erosional surface developed on undeformed (horizontal) lower (older) beds.

These can be difficult to detect in the field unless there is a change in sedimentary facies between the upper and lower beds

slide43
An angular unconformity occurs when younger beds are deposited on strata that have been folded and eroded to produce a flat depositional surface. This implies deposition, followed by tectonism, erosion and further deposition.
slide44
A nonconformity is an unconformity in which the upper beds (younger beds) overlie metamorphic or igneous rocks.

A nonconformity thus implies volcanism, plutonism or tectonism to produce the igneous and/or metamorphic rocks, followed by erosion to a flat surface and eventual deposition of sedimentary rocks

slide46

Angular

Unconformity –Siccar Point on the Berwickshire coast ~ 60 km east of Edinburgh,

Scotland.

slide49
Half-life : time it takes for half of the Parent to decay (change) to the Daughter
  • Uranium-235 -> Lead-207
  • Uranium-238 -> Lead-206
  • Thorium-232 -> Lead-208
  • Rubidium-87 -> Strontium-87
  • Potassium-40 -> Argon-40
  • Carbon-14 -> Nitrogen-14
slide50
During the decay Heat is given off - this is an important source of energy to produce temperatures necessary for partial melting.
  • alpha decay - two protons and two neutrons are emitted from the nucleus. This reduces the atomic number of the parent by 2 and the mass number of the parent by 4. Uranium to Lead Schemes
slide51
Electron capture - occurs when a proton captures an electron and changes into a neutron. The atomic number of the parent element is decreased by 1 but the mass number is unchanged :
  • Beta decay - an electron is emitted from a neutron in the nucleus changing the neutron to a proton. This increases the atomic number of the parent element by 1 but does not change the atomic mass number :
separuh hayat c 14 n14
Separuh hayat C-14 N14
  • 5700 years

N-14 is converted to C-14 in the earth’s atm. C-14 bonds with oxygen to form CO2. Living organism absorbs C-14, and as long as the organism is alive the amount of C14 in its structure remains constant. When the organism dies no more C-14 ia absorbed and the amount of C14 decreases as it devays back to N14. The older the organism, the smaller the amount of C-14

sesuai untuk organisma usia < 70000 tahun

slide58

GEOLOGIC

COLUMN

slide60

OBSERVATIONS

Life was largely confined to the sea from the Silurian Period back through the Cambrian and beyond

Plants and amphibians colonized land during the Devonian.

The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian were noted for exotic coal forests; Europeans group them together as the Carboniferous Period

slide62

Paleozoic Era

Permian Period (286-245 mya) The supercontinent Pangaea began to break up.

Pennsylvanian Period (325-286 mya) Lush, moist forests inhabited by giant amphibians and

Mississippian Period (360-325 mya) insects produced vast coal reserves.

Devonian Period (410-360 mya) The first vertebrates conquered land during this "Age of Fishes.“

Silurian Period (440-410 mya) Fishes with jaws and insects evolved.

Ordovician Period (505-440 mya) The first vertebrates appeared.

Cambrian Period (544-505 mya) An "explosion" of life produced the first hard-shelled creatures.

slide63
MESOZOIC ERA  The Age of Dinosaurs

Cretaceous Period (146-65 mya) A meteor finished off T. rex and all the other Dinosaurs.

Jurassic Period (208-146 mya) Sauropods were the largest land animals ever!

Triassic Period (245-208 mya) Dinosaurs, mammals and birds got their start..

slide64
CENOZOIC ERA  The Age of Mammals
  • Holocene Epoch (11,000 years ago...to today!
  • Pleistocene Epoch (1.8 million-11,000 years) People evolved during the last "Ice Age."The Pleistocene and Holocene are the beginning of the Quaternary Period.
slide65
The Paleocene through Pliocene epochs make up the Tertiary Period.

Pliocene Epoch (5-1.8 mya) North and South America were joined together.

Miocene Epoch (23-5 mya) The first major grasslands appeared, along with kelp forests.

Oligocene Epoch (38-23 mya) The first marsupials evolved.

Eocene Epoch (54-38 mya) The first grasses appeared.

Paleocene Period (65-54 mya) The first pines, palms and cacti evolved

masa dinosaur pupus
Masa dinosaur pupus
  • When did dinosaurs become extinct?
  • Dinosaurs went extinct about 65 million years ago (at the end of the Cretaceous Period), after living on Earth for about 165 million years. If all of Earth time from the very beginning of the dinosaurs to today were compressed into 365 days (1 calendar year), the dinosaurs appeared January 1 and became extinct the third week of September. (Using this same time scale, the Earth would have formed approximately 18.5 years earlier.) By comparison, people (Homo sapiens) have been on earth only since December 31 (New Year's eve). The dinosaurs' long period of dominance certainly makes them unqualified successes in the history of life on Earth.
what was the biggest dinosaur what was the smallest
What was the biggest dinosaur? What was the smallest?
  • The largest complete dinosaur we know of was Brachiosaurus ("arm lizard"); it reached 23 m in length and 12 m in height (about the length of two large school buses and the height of a four-story building). Fragmentary leg bones and vertebrae of even larger dinosaur species are known, but these skeletal remains are too incomplete to determine their exact size. Several of these (Argentinasaurus and Amphicoelias) might have been one and a half to two times larger than Brachiosaurus. The smallest dinosaurs were just slightly larger than a chicken; Compsognathus ("pretty jaw") was 1 m (3 ft) long and probably weighed about 2.5 kg (about 6.5 lb). These three dinosaur types all lived during the Jurassic Period. Mussaurus ("mouse lizard") was claimed as the smallest dinosaur, but it is now known to be the hatchling of a dinosaur type that was much larger than Compsognathus when fully grown. If birds are advanced dinosaurs, then the smallest dinosaur would be the hummingbird!
kajian tapak
KAJIAN TAPAK
  • Surface geology
  • Subsurface geology
  • Engineering parameters
  • Environment
  • Mineral (logam, bukan logam)
  • Air tanah
  • Archeology (kajipurba)

Mineral

Batuan

Sedimen

air

next lecture
NEXT LECTURE
  • DEFORMATION/CANGGAAN