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Chapter 5 notes. The structure and function of Macromolecules. Concept 5.1. ________ : a long molecule consisting of similar or identical building blocks - like a train with many cars - ____________ : repeating units that are the building blocks

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chapter 5 notes

Chapter 5 notes

The structure and function of Macromolecules

concept 5 1
Concept 5.1

________: a long molecule consisting of similar or identical building blocks

- like a train with many cars

- ____________: repeating units that are the building blocks

Diversity of life is based around 40 or 50 polymers

concept 5 13
Concept 5.1

Monomers are connected together by ____________________ (anabolic)

- covalent bond w/ the loss of H2O

Polymers are broken down by ___________ (catabolic)

- reverse rxn. of dehydration synthesis

- “break with water”

concept 5 14
Concept 5.1

1

2

3

H

HO

H

HO

Unlinked monomer

Short polymer

Dehydration removes a water

molecule, forming a new bond

H2O

HO

1

2

3

4

H

Longer polymer

(a)

Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer

concept 5 15

HO

H

4

1

2

3

Hydrolysis adds a water

molecule, breaking a bond

H2O

HO

H

H

HO

2

1

3

Concept 5.1
concept 5 2
Concept 5.2

____________: include sugars and polymers

________________ (monos = single; sacchar = sugar)

- molecular formula is CH2O

- ex. Glucose (C6H12O6)

- most sugars are rings when aqueous

concept 5 27

(a) Linear and ring forms

(b) Abbreviated ring structure

Concept 5.2
concept 5 28
Concept 5.2

_____________: two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage

- formed by dehydration synthesis

- glucose + glucose = maltose + H2O

- glucose + fructose = sucrose + H2O

concept 5 29

Glucose

Glucose

Maltose

(a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose

Glucose

Fructose

Sucrose

(b) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose

Concept 5.2
concept 5 210
Concept 5.2

______________: polymers w/ few hundred to a few thousand monomers

-fcn. of a polysaccharide is determined by monomers and positions of glycosidic linkages

concept 5 211
Concept 5.2

Storage polysaccharides

- _____: found in plants; consists only of glucose monomers (1-4 linkage); how plants store glucose (chloroplasts)

- ___________: polymer of glucose found in animals; stored in liver and muscle cells

concept 5 212
Concept 5.2

Structural polysaccharides

- _________: major component of plant cell walls

- note: 2 ring structures of glucose (alpha (a) and beta (b))

- cellulose is composed of all b glucose

- cellulose = “insoluble fiber”

concept 5 213
Concept 5.2

 Glucose

 Glucose

(a)  and  glucose ring structures

concept 5 215

Cell walls

Cellulose

microfibrils

in a plant

cell wall

Microfibril

10 µm

0.5 µm

Cellulose

molecules

  • Glucose

monomer

Concept 5.2
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

Structural polysaccharides (cntd.)

- _________: carbohydrate used by arthropods to build exoskeletons

- also used to make decomposable surgical thread

concept 5 217

(a)

(c)

(b)

Chitin forms the

exoskeleton of

arthropods.

The structure

of the chitin

monomer.

Chitin is used to make

a strong and flexible

surgical thread.

Concept 5.2
concept 5 3
Concept 5.3

________: little or no affinity for water; consist mostly of hydrocarbons

- 3 families: fats, phospholipids, steroids

Fat: composed of 2 parts

- _________: 3 carbon alcohol w/ hydroxyl

- ___________: long carbon skeletons w/ carboxyl groups

concept 5 319
Concept 5.3

Fatty acid

(palmitic acid)

Glycerol

(a)

Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a fat

concept 5 320
Concept 5.3

Fatty acids can vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds

- “___________”: no double bonds; most animal fats; solid at room temp.

- “_____________”: has one or more double bonds which removes H atoms; plants and fish; liquid at room temp.

concept 5 321

Structural

formula of a

saturated fat

molecule

Stearic acid, a

saturated fatty

acid

(a)

Saturated fat

Concept 5.3
concept 5 322

Structural formula

of an unsaturated

fat molecule

Oleic acid, an

unsaturated

fatty acid

cis double

bond causes

bending

(b)

Unsaturated fat

Concept 5.3
concept 5 323
Concept 5.3

The major fcn. of fats is energy storage.

- 1g of fat stores more than twice as much energy as 1g of a polysaccharide

- mammals stock food reserves in adipose cells

concept 5 324
Concept 5.3

____________: similar to fats but have only 2 fatty acid tails; 3rd hydroxyl group joins to a phosphate group

- show ambivalent behavior to water

- head= _______ (hydrophilic); tail= ____________ (hydrophobic)

- arranged in a bilayer, or double layer

concept 5 325

Choline

Phosphate

Hydrophilic head

Glycerol

Fatty acids

Hydrophobic tails

Hydrophilic

head

Hydrophobic

tails

Space-filling model

Phospholipid symbol

(a)

(b)

(c)

Structural formula

Concept 5.3
concept 5 326
Concept 5.3

___________: lipids with a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings

- differ in functional groups attached to rings

- Cholesterol: found in animal cell membranes; precursor for other steroids

concept 5 4
Concept 5.4

Proteins: account for more than 50% of the dry weight of most cells

- used for structural support, storage, transport, signaling, movement, and defense

concept 5 429
Concept 5.4

Proteins are polymers constructed from the same set of 20 _______________

- called ______________

- consist of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specific conformations

concept 5 430
Concept 5.4

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins

- a carbon is bonded to an animo group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable (R)

- grouped according to side chains (nonpolar, polar, acidic, basic)

concept 5 433
Concept 5.4

Amino acids are bonded together by a _______________

- carboxyl group of one amino acid connects w/ the amino group of another (dehydration synthesis)

concept 5 435
Concept 5.4

Four levels of protein structure

- ______________: unique sequence of amino acids

- even a slight change can affect a proteins conformation and ability to function

- ex. Sickle-cell disease

concept 5 437
Concept 5.4

- ______________: coils or folds that are a result of hydrogen bonds at regular intervals

- _________: delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid

- __________________: two or more regions lie parallel to each other

concept 5 439
Concept 5.4

- _______________: irregular contortions from interactions between side chains (R groups)

- hydrophobic interactions: nonpolar side chains cluster in the core, away from water

- van der Waals interactions help hold them together

concept 5 440
Concept 5.4

- disulfide bridges: covalent bond between two cysteine monomers (have sulfhydryl groups)

- ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds also contribute

concept 5 442
Concept 5.4

- ___________________: overall protein structure resulting from combining of multiple subunits

The unique conformation endows each protein with a specific function

concept 5 445
Concept 5.4

The unique conformation endows each protein with a specific function

- _________________: protein unravels and losses its conformation

- pH, [salt], temperature

concept 5 5
Concept 5.5

Compounds that are responsible for determining the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.

Two types of nucleic acids

- deoxyribonucleic acid (______)

- ribonucleic acid (______)

Flow of genetic information: DNA  RNA  Protein

concept 5 547

DNA

1

Synthesis of

mRNA in the

nucleus

mRNA

NUCLEUS

CYTOPLASM

mRNA

2

Movement of

mRNA into cytoplasm

via nuclear pore

Ribosome

3

Synthesis

of protein

Amino

acids

Polypeptide

Concept 5.5
concept 5 548
Concept 5.5

______________ are the monomers (building blocks) of nucleic acids

-nucleotide = nitrogenous base + pentose (5-carbon sugar) + phosphate

concept 5 549

5 end

Nitrogenous bases

Pyrimidines

5C

3C

Nucleoside

Nitrogenous

base

Thymine (T, in DNA)

Uracil (U, in RNA)

Cytosine (C)

Purines

Phosphate

group

Sugar

(pentose)

5C

Adenine (A)

Guanine (G)

(b) Nucleotide

3C

Sugars

3 end

(a) Polynucleotide, or nucleic acid

Ribose (in RNA)

Deoxyribose (in DNA)

(c) Nucleoside components: sugars

Concept 5.5
concept 5 550
Concept 5.5

Two families of nitrogenous bases:

- _______________: single ring; cytosine (C), thymine (T), and Uracil (U)

- ____________: double ring; adenine (A), and guanine (G)

concept 5 551
Concept 5.5

Difference between DNA and RNA is in the sugar. DNA lacks an oxygen atom attached to its number 2 carbon

___________: nucleotides are joined by phosphodiester linkage

concept 5 552
Concept 5.5

DNA molecules have two polynucleotides that form a double helix.

- Watson and Crick (1953)

- A binds to T; C binds to G; forms two complementary strands