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Evolution- “Change Over Time”. All of the changes that have occurred in living things since the beginning of life on Earth. Theories of Evolution. Darwin vs. Lamarck. Lamarck. Darwin. Jean-Baptiste LaMarck. French, Early 1800’s Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

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evolution change over time
Evolution- “Change Over Time”

All of the changes that have occurred in living things since the beginning of life on Earth

darwin vs lamarck
Theories of Evolution

Darwin vs. Lamarck

slide3
Lamarck

Darwin

jean baptiste lamarck
Jean-Baptiste LaMarck
  • French, Early 1800’s

Theory of

Inheritance of

Acquired Characteristics

  • Two main points…
slide5
1. Principle of Use & Disuse:
  • Most used body structures develop, unused structures waste away
  • 2. Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics:
  • Once the structure is modified, the new trait can be inherited (passed to offspring)
why we don t believe him
Why we don’t believe him…
  • Experiments: show that changes that occur in an animal’s life are not passed on to its offspring
  • Genetics:Gregor Mendel discovered that traits are passed down through GENES (which aren’t affected by the outside world in that way)
charles darwin the father of evolution
Charles Darwin“The Father of Evolution”
  • 1831- sailed on the HMS Beagle to the Galapagos Islands.
  • Studied many species of finches.
  • Published book in 1845:
    • “On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection”
darwin s theory of evolution don t copy all this it s on your handout
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution(don’t copy all this it’s on your handout) 

“Natural Selection”

“Survival of the Fittest”

natural selection
Natural Selection
  • Process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable heritable traits become less common.
four main points
Four main points…
  • 1. More organisms are produced than can survive…leads to COMPETITION OVER RESOURCES
      • Ex’s of resources…
        • Water
        • Food
        • Habitat
        • Mates
3 some variations are favorable increase chances for survival reproduction
3. Some variations are FAVORABLE (increase chances for survival/ reproduction)
  • Male vs. Female Cardinals
  • Male color attracts female= reproductive advantage
better adapted individuals survive and reproduce
Better adapted individuals survive and reproduce
  • These are the individuals that will pass on their genes to the next generation.
  • This can change the GENE POOL:
    • Includes all the genes of every reproductive member of a population
what the theory of evolution is not
What The theory of evolution IS NOT!!!
  • It does NOT occur in INDIVIDUALS…only populations!
  • It does NOT happen quickly…the Earth has a Looooooong history!
  • It does NOT explain how life came to be on Earth, just how it evolved after it was here.
  • It does NOT have any driving force except the competition for limited resources.
species
Species…
  • A group of organisms that are genetically similar enough to produce healthy, fertile offspring.
darwin s finches

Darwin’s Finches

An example of Adaptive Radiation

slide20
Finch Types:

Using Darwin’s Theory, explain how all of these different species evolved.

darwin one smart guy
Darwin…one smart guy…

“Seeing this gradation & diversity of structure in one small, intimately related group of birds, one might really fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different ends.”

phylogenetic trees
Phylogenetic Trees
  • Show evolutionary “relatedness”
  • Based on fossil record, dna evidence, structural similarity, etc
slide23
What common ancestor do all of

These organisms share?

darwin s finches again
Darwin’s Finches…again…

What common ancestor do the seed eating and cactus eating finches share?

What do each of the finch pictures on here represent?

  • Which 2 species are more
  • closely related:
  • Mangrove Finch and Woodpecker finch
  • Small ground finch and Bud-eating finch
good questions with good answers
Good Questions with Good Answers.
  • How can new species be formed and the old one not go extinct? Wasn’t the whole reason a new species formed was that it had a survival advantage?
speciation does not necessarily cause extinction
Speciation does NOT necessarily cause EXTINCTION!
  • A NEW SPECIES’ existence just means…
    • That POPULATION’S GENES have been altered so much that they can no longer mate with members of the original population.
      • NOW there are TWO SPECIES
      • Eventually…one may go extinct, but NOT NECESSARY!!!
darwin s finches p 558
Darwin’s Finches…p 558
  • Illustrate SPECIATION: when a species breaks into two (or more)
    • The organisms in the two species can no longer…
      • INTERBREED
slide28
What could cause this to happen?
    • Occupy a new niche/habitat
    • Geographic barriers/Reproductive Isolation
    • Reduction of gene flow
    • Selective Pressure
geographic isolation
Geographic Isolation…

Sometimes populations

are spit In two due to a geographic barrier. This can lead to reproductive isolation. How could this lead to speciation?

reduction of gene flow
Reduction of Gene Flow…

If members of a species live far away from each other, they will have a decreased chance of mating. This would create reduced gene flow, but not total isolation. Speciation would probably also require different selective pressures at the two ends.

Eventually, this could alter gene frequencies in groups at different ends of the range so much that they would not be able to mate if they were reunited…that’s speciation!

selective pressure
Selective Pressure
  • A “pressure” from the environment that makes some individuals more likely to survive and reproduce.
  • Three types…
    • Disruptive
    • Directional
    • Stabilizing
types of natural selection
Types of Natural Selection
  • Stabilizing Selection
    • Occurs when natural selection works against the 2 extremes of a trait to make the population more uniform.
stabilizing selection1
Stabilizing Selection
  • Birth weight of babies
    • Babies that are too big or too small might have less chance of being born healthy.
natural selection2
Natural Selection
  • Directional Selection
    • Selects the extreme of 1 trait.
directional selection
Directional Selection
  • In a population of plants, flowers with the brightest color might be selected for in order to attract the most pollinators.
natural selection3
Natural Selection
  • Disruptive Selection
    • Selects against the mean of the population.
disruptive selection
Disruptive Selection
  • If there are 2 types of seeds to eat for a population of birds, either of 2 different beak shapes (sharp or blunt) might be selected for, but a beak that’s the average of the 2 shapes might not be particularly good at eating either seed, so it would be selected against.
three important points
Three important points…
  • Evolution occurs over MANY generations
  • Evolution occurs within POPULATIONS (NOT individuals)
  • Evolution involves genetic changes in a SPECIES
    • (Members of a species interbreed to produce healthy, fertile offspring)
slide40
The process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable heritable traits become less common.
  • Evolution
  • Natural Selection
  • Adaptations
  • Genetic Recombination
slide41
Consider, for example, a population of shellfish called limpets. The shell color of these limpets ranges from white, to tan, to dark brown. As adults, limpets live attached to rocks. On light-colored rocks, white-shelled limpets have an advantage because their bird predators cannot easily see them. On dark-colored rocks, dark-colored limpets have the advantage because they are camouflaged. On the other hand, birds easily see tan-colored limpets on either the light or dark backgrounds. These tan-colored limpets will be at a selection disadvantage and will most likely become extinct from the population. This type of natural selection is known as:
  • Stabilizing Selection
  • Directional Selection
  • Disruptive Selection
slide42
Consider a population of spiders in which the average size is a survival advantage. Predators in the area might easily see and capture spiders that are larger than average. However, small spiders may find it difficult to find food. Therefore, in this environment, average-sized spiders are more likely to survive. This type of natural selection is known as:
  • Stabilizing Selection
  • Directional Selection
  • Disruptive Selection
slide43
Imagine a population of woodpeckers pecking holes in trees to feed on the insects living under the bark. Suppose that a species of insect that lives deep in tree tissues invades the trees in a woodpecker population’s territory. Only woodpeckers with long beaks could feed on that insect. Therefore, the long-beaked woodpeckers in the population would have a selective advantage over woodpeckers with very short or average-sized beaks. This type of natural selection is known as:
  • Stabilizing Selection
  • Directional Selection
  • Disruptive Selection
the smallest unit that can evolve is
The smallest unit that can evolve is:
  • A genome
  • An individual
  • A community
  • A population
to predict evolutionary activity we look at the population s gene pool
To predict evolutionary activity, we look at the population’s Gene Pool
  • Gene pool - all the genes of every reproductive member of a population.
genetic equilibrium
Genetic Equilibrium
  • Not all populations are in an active state of “natural selection”
  • GENETIC EQUILIBRIUM
    • This means that there is no change in the gene pool = no evolution
genetic equilibrium1
Genetic Equilibrium
  • 1.) Population size is large
  • 2.) No gene flow in the population
      • No new organisms introducing more alleles
  • 3.) No mutations
  • 4.) No environmental factors causing natural selection
      • No trait is favorable over another
  • 5.) Random mating must occur
so what factors exist to make a population evolve
So what factors exist to make a population evolve?
  • It must NOT be in GENETIC EQUILIBRIUM
  • Something that knocks the population out of genetic equilibrium is called a

MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION

sources of genetic variation
Sources of Genetic Variation
  • What do you think are some sources of genetic variation?

Mutations

Natural Selection

gene flow

genetic drift

mechanisms of evolution1
Mechanisms of Evolution
  • 1. Natural Selection
  • 2. Sexual Selection / Non-random mating
  • 3. Mutation
  • 4. Gene Flow (Migration)
  • 5. Genetic Drift- reduces population size
    • Bottleneck effect
    • Founder effect
genetic drift
Genetic Drift

Genetic Drift occurs when the frequency of alleles change

due to

RANDOM PROCESSES!

(NOT natural selection)

genetic drift2
Genetic Drift
  • http://www.biology.arizona.edu/evolution/act/drift/frame.html
what term s would best describe the picture below
What term(s) would best describe the picture below.
  • Founder Effect
  • Bottleneck Effect
  • Ross Effect
  • Mutation

Original Population

Newly Established Population

what term s would best describe the picture below1
What term(s) would best describe the picture below.
  • Pizza effect
  • Bottleneck effect
  • Founder effect
  • Woods effect
slide63
If a large population of the same species of squirrels were fed nuts that come from plant containing a toxin that is poisonous to the squirrel, the researcher concludes that these squirrels die and cannot survive on these nuts alone. Then the researcher introduces the poisonous nuts to a smaller isolated population of the same species of bird and finds that these birds are able to eat the nuts. How can this be explained?
slide64
Recently West Nile Virus has become a major problem in our area. Cities have begun spraying pesticides in the summertime to try and kill off a large amount of mosquitoes. How come every few years the cities should change their pesticide mix?
relative frequency of an allele
Relative Frequency of an Allele
  • The number of times an allele occurs in the gene pool, given as a percentage
  • Relative frequency has nothing to do with dominant or recessive
  • The recessive allele can occur more frequently
how does reproduction affect natural selection
How does reproduction affect natural selection
  • Discuss with your partner:
    • How would a population that reproduces asexually “evolve” differently than one that reproduces sexually? WHY?
a note on sexual reproduction
A note on sexual reproduction…
  • Sexual reproduction can produce many different phenotypes
  • Sexual reproduction does NOT change relative frequency of alleles in a population
  • Think about shuffling a deck of cards
    • Shuffling cards gives you different hands
    • It won’t change the number of kings in a deck
population genetics1
Population Genetics
  • In the early 1900s these two men discovered how the frequency of a trait’s alleles in a population could be described mathematically.

G H Hardy – British Mathematician

Wilhelm Weinberg – German Doctor

population genetics2
Population Genetics
  • For every phenotype how many alleles do you have???
    • 2
      • 1 from Mom and 1 from Dad
  • These scientists figured out an equation that can be used to figure out the percentages of alleles and genotypes that are in a population.
genetic equilibrium hardy weinberg principle
Genetic Equilibrium:Hardy-Weinberg Principle
  • Allele frequency in a population will remain constant unless an outside factor causes those frequencies to change
  • When allele frequencies remain constant, we call this genetic equilibrium
population genetics background
Population Genetics Background
  • Given a population of 300 plants…
    • How many total height genes are there?
    • Given that 100 plants are short (recessive trait), 200 are tall, and 50 are homozygous tall, how many are there of each genotype?
      • Homozygous recessive
      • Homozygous dominant
      • Heterozygous
    • How many T alleles are there in the gene pool?
      • What is this alleles’ frequency in the population?
    • How many t alleles are there in the gene pool?
      • What is this alleles’ frequency in the population?
genetic equilibrium review
Genetic Equilibrium Review
  • In order for their equation to work the population has to be in GENETIC EQUILIBRIUM
    • This means that there is no change in the gene pool = no evolution
genetic equilibrium review1
Genetic Equilibrium (Review)
  • 1.) Population size is large
  • 2.) No gene flow in the population
      • No new organisms introducing more alleles
  • 3.) No mutations
  • 4.) No environmental factors causing natural selection
      • No trait is favorable over another
  • 5.) Random mating must occur
the hardy weinberg equation
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
  • p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
  • p2 = frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype
  • 2pq = frequency of the heterozygous genotype
  • q2 = frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype
hardy weinberg
Hardy-Weinberg
  • p – frequency of the dominant allele
  • q – frequency of the recessive allele
  • Because there are only 2 alleles, the frequency of the dominant allele (p) and the frequency of the recessive allele (q) will add up to 1 or 100%
  • p + q = 1
hardy weinberg1
Hardy-Weinberg
  • In reality, no population satisfies the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium completely
  • However, in large populations with little migration and little natural selection, it can approximate gene frequencies
hardy weinberg example
Hardy-Weinberg Example
  • In a population of 100 people 28 of them were found to have freckles and 72 were not. We learned in class during our genetics unit that having freckles is a recessive trait and not having them is because of a dominant trait. If this population is in genetic equilibrium then solve for the allelic frequencies and the variables in the hardy-weinberg equation:
how does reproduction affect natural selection1
How does reproduction affect natural selection
  • Discuss with your partner:
    • How would a population that reproduces asexually “evolve” differently than one that reproduces sexually? WHY?
a note on sexual reproduction1
A note on sexual reproduction…
  • Sexual reproduction can produce many different phenotypes
  • Sexual reproduction does NOT change relative frequency of alleles in a population
  • Think about shuffling a deck of cards
    • Shuffling cards gives you different hands
    • It won’t change the number of kings in a deck
queens full of jacks
Queens full of Jacks!
  • Let’s Mate!
  • red card=dominant allele=R
  • black card=recessive allele=r
predicted vs actual
Predicted vs Actual
  • If this population is in equilibrium, we should have the predicted % for our genotypes…
  • We have…20 rr envelopes and 30RR envelopes
  • Are we in equilibrium?
what should happen
What should happen?

If we are evolving…

If we are not…

slide85
If a population is in genetic equilibrium and 30% of the individuals are homozygous recessive for the trait of color, what is the percentage of homozygous dominant individuals?
  • .30
  • .55
  • .45
  • .20
  • .50
slide86
If a population is in genetic equilibrium and 41% of the individuals are homozygous recessive for the trait of color, what is the percentage of homozygous dominant individuals?
  • .13
  • .36
  • .45
  • .64
  • .50
slide87
2.

1.

4.

3.

Using the example of the west nile mosquitoes that are sprayed with a pesticide, suppose one mosquito has a genetic mutation that allows the mosquito to survive. Which graph best represents the frequency of this gene over time?

  • Picture Choice 1
  • Picture Choice 2
  • Picture Choice 3
  • Picture Choice 4
slide88
You have determined the frequency of the dominant allele in a population. Over the next two generations, the frequency of this allele does not change. Which factors below must be true in order to maintain this equilibrium:
  • Random mating
  • Large population size
  • No natural selection
  • No gene flow
  • No mutations
slide89
The frequency of a particular recessive allele in a population of chipmunks is .3 The frequency of the dominant allele in this same population is:
  • .3
  • .6
  • .7
  • 1
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