Conceptua lization

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Conceptualization Evolution. A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications. Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044) Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 1. Semantically Complete Model. Conceptua lization.

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Conceptualization Evolution

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 1

Semantically Complete Model

Conceptualization

Complete Relations

Direct Concept Reflection

Object-Role Model

Incomplete Relations

Direct Concept Reflection

Entity-Relationship Model

Incomplete Relations

Two Ways of Concept Reflection

Relational Model

Incomplete Relations

Indirect Concept Reflection

Semantically Complete Model

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 2

• A semantically complete relation is identified by a set of object types
• A semantically complete model has no alternative relations

Prohibited cases:

The consequence: a relation can be queried with an object types enumeration

Example: (Material Piece, Thickness)

Semantically Complete Model Textual Notation

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 3

• Textual Notation Essence
• The textual notation consists of phrases and constraints (business rules)
• A phrase represents a relation and describes interconnection of object types correctly from experts’ point of view
• Object types have capital first letters
• Constraints:
• Functional: [ an arrow  ]
• Equal: [ an equivalence  ]
• Mandatory: an underline ____
• Complex: [ (a query): (a base constraint on the query) ]

An Example of Semantically Complete Model

A Material Piece has a Thickness

[Material Piece  Thickness]

A Slab is a Material Piece

[Slab  Material Piece]

[(Thickness–Consumed Material Piece–Material Transformation–

Produced Material Piece): Produced Material Piece  Thickness]

Semantically Complete Query Language

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 4

A calculable relation:

Calculable Relation

1. A role object type is a combination of an object type and a positive integer role index

2. A calculable relation is built on a set of role object types

A positioning:

Calculable Relation Representation

1. A representation maps states of base relations to a state of a calculable relation

2. Projection, Union, Minus are similar to those in relational algebra

3. A positioning repeats a base relation state with changing of role object types

4. A composition is a superposition of base relations on role object types

A composition:

Semantically Complete Query Language Notation

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 5

A Model Example

A Material Piece is assigned to a Production Order

[Material Piece  Production Order]

A Material Piece has a Thickness

[Material Piece  Thickness]

A Slab is a Material Piece

[Slab  Material Piece]

A Coil is a Material Piece

[Coil  Material Piece]

Examples of SCQL Expressions

Composition of n-ary relations: ((Slab, Material Piece), (Material Piece, Thickness))

Composition of binary relations: (Slab–Material Piece–Thickness)

Positioning: (Material Piece(1)–Thickness–Material Piece(2))

Projection: (Slab–Material Piece–Thickness).(Slab, Thickness)

Union: ((Slab–Material Piece) union (Material Piece–Coil))

Minus: ((Slab–Material Piece) minus (Material Piece–Production Order))

Semantically Complete Query Language Properties

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 6

1. All expressions are described without properrelation names

Example: (Material Piece, Thickness) - request of the relation

2. A composition of binary relations is described as a role object type chain

Example: (Slab–Material Piece–Thickness–Material Piece(2))

3. It is not necessary to set a relation join criterion manually, the criterion of role object types coincidence is automatically used

Example: ((Slab, Material Piece), (Material Piece, Thickness(2)))

4. A selection is a special case of composition, when one of relations is based on a condition clause

Example: ((Material Piece–Thickness(2)), (Thickness(2)>0,5))

5. Union and minus can be applied to relations with different arities, the matching criterion of role object types coincidence is automatically used

Example: ((Slab–Material Piece) union (Thickness–Material Piece–Coil))

6. A positioning is used implicitly; if a role index is absent, it is taken as 1.

Example: (Slab–Material Piece–Thickness–Material Piece(2)) - a composition with three implicit positionings before it

7. An object type can be used many times in different roles

Example: (Slab–Material Piece(1)–Thickness–Material Piece(2))

Default Closure of Semantically Complete Model

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 7

A Default Closure

1. A default closure allows to request interconnection of indirectlyconnected object types by their simple enumeration: (Slab, Thickness)

2. A default closure is a subset of a relation set of a semantically complete model, the subset must not have alternative paths

3. Each semantically complete model has one default closure, perhaps empty

4. Relations included in a default closure are highlighted with a bold font

Calculation Algorithm

A requested relation based on indirectly connected object types is calculated as a projection of composition of some relations included in a default closure; all taken relations must be connected

A Model Example

A Material Piece has a Thickness

[Material Piece  Thickness]

A Slab is a Material Piece

[Slab  Material Piece]

A Default Closure Use Example

(Slab, Thickness) - the object types are connected indirectly, but they are queried as if they are connected directly

Main Properties of Semantically Complete Modeling

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 8

• Use simplicity and expandability of SCM follow from the following:
• Relations carry complete information about interconnection of object types.
• Relations are referred without their proper names; it allows to analyze a model considering object types only.
• Model development and discussion are performed in the same terms.
• Query formulation is performed without relations’ proper names.
• A composition of binary relations is represented as a chain of object types.
• A general criterion of relation matching holds when executing composition, union, or difference; it is not necessary to indicate the criterion explicitly.
• A selection is a particular case of a composition.
• A request of interconnection of indirectly connected object types, being included in a default closure, is represented as an enumeration of object types.

A Semantically Complete Modeling Application

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 9

Semantically Complete Model of a MES of a Metallurgical Manufacture

A Material Piece has a Thickness

[Material Piece  Thickness]

A Coil is a Material Piece

[Coil  Material Piece]

A Material Piece is assigned to a Production Order

[Material Piece  Production Order]

A Consumed Material Piece is a Material Piece

[Consumed Material Piece  Material Piece]

A Produced Material Piece is a Material Piece

[Produced Material Piece  Material Piece]

A Material Transformation produces a Produced Material Piece

[Material Transformation  Produced Material Piece]

A Material Transformation consumes a Consumed Material Piece

[Material Transformation  Consumed Material Piece]

[(Thickness–Consumed Material Piece–Material Transformation–Produced Material Piece): Produced Material Piece  Thickness] <Thicknesses of all material pieces, consumed during production of a given one, must be the same.>

Semantically Complete Information Environment

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 10

Storage: an RDBMS or another storage being reflected to SCM

SCM Adaptor: it executes local SCQL expressions and modifications, translating them to expressions of a underlying language (for example, SQL)

SCM Integrator: holds information about distribution of relations among other data servers; requests the information from a domain integrator if necessary; fulfills distributed SCQL expressions and modifications;

SCM Domain Integrator: holds information about distribution of relations among

data servers of a domain; requests it from a higher domain integrator

SCM Client: executes distributed SCQL expressions and modifications, calling integrators

Semantic Browser: visualizes SCM contents using shared points of view on information, fulfills semantic navigation between view points, filters contents, modifies distributed data

Semantic Browser Features

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 11

1. Browsing and modifying data stored in distributed and heterogeneous way

2. Sharing distributed repository of viewpoints; viewpoints contain data sources which represent SCQL queries and are connected according to role object types automatically

4. Easy setup of master-detail dependencies between data sources, it is enough to arrange connected data sources hierarchically

5. Automatic support of data source filtering, filters storing and restoring. A filter is just another relation being composed with a data source.

6. Creation and publication of new view points by users, coding only SCQL queries

7. Automatic support of semantic navigation according to participation of object types in root data sources of view points

8. After a transition to another view point, its main data source is filtered according to values in selected cells of a data source being initial for the transition

9. Sharing distributed repository of customizable components for representation of data sources: grids, analytical charts, trees, graphs and others

Conclusion and Further Work

A Conceptual Modeling Technique Based on Semantically Complete Model, its Applications

Vladimir Ovchinnikov, PhD (ovch@lipetsk.ru, +79103506044)Lipetsk State Technical University Slide 12

• Conclusion
• The properties of Semantically Complete Model increase simplicity and expandability of conceptual modeling
• Semantically Complete Information Environment allows to browse and modify distributed and heterogeneous data through the semantic interface with high flexibility and automatically supported semantic navigation
• Embodiment of the environment to Internet allows to simplify and hasten development of Internet applications, to increase reliability and data integration level, to use data in semantic way
• The property of SCQL to interact with a model by means of application domain terms only allows to develop fundamentally new tools and applications
• Further Work
• Designing and implementation:
• Semantically Complete data access interface with a relational DBMS as a data storage
• Data integration software of the Information Environment
• Semantic Browser
• View points and components repository