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HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE
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  1. HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE Class I

  2. WHY THIS COURSE? • Agriculture is important for India • 62% population depend on agriculture • Contribution to GDP going down • TFP had been declining but now recovering • NSS Survey indicates 44% farmers want to quit farming • Investment in ag. R&D declining • Youth not attracted to agriculture • Situation likely to be alarming after 2025 • New generation faces a big challenge • IARI students: Good in subject matter, poor in other sub.

  3. Origin of Agriculture • Modern man (Homo sapiens) believed to have evolved from Homo erectus- 135,000-200,000 yrs ago • Most of this period lived in Nomadic existence in forest as hunters & gatherers of food • Process of domestication-10,000 yrs ago • Sign of plant cultivation-8th-7th millennium BC • Archaeological remains-wheat, barley, pea, lentils etc- near East- spread to Europe, West Asia & Nile valley • More sp. –domesticated • What motivated them to adopt: hunting to settled agri.? • People on diversified diet healthier than farmers

  4. FOOD & AGRICULTURE • Food – an essential need • Agriculture- prime source for food • History of agri.- co-terminus with civilization • History of Indian agri.- complicated & controversial • Absence of literary text for early period • Lit. available – post Gupta or early medieval era

  5. Agriculture in India • Earliest source- Arthashastra of Kautilya • Agri. is way of life, a philosophy & a culture • Agri. & herding under Revenue Admn. • Characterized by archaelogical evidences • Vindhya-Ganga region • North-west of Indian subcontinent • Hunting-gathering in late Mesolithic period to • Domestication of animals and cultivation of plants- 7-6thmillenium BC

  6. Agriculture in India • Indian subcontinent had 2 centres of farming of cereals : • North-west with barley-wheat complex (Mehrgarh) • Vindhya-Ganga region for rice: latter is earlier than former Domestication of rice is found at Atranjikher & LalQila (1200-1500 BC) Rice-wheat-barley-legume agri. Established in Narhan & Imlikhurd by the end of 3rd millennium Two crop a year started around this period

  7. Agriculture in India • Millets of African origin -Introduced in India in 3rd millennium BC -Associated with Harappan culture (2,500-2,000 BC) -Came to middle Ganga plains by 1800 BC • Border land of Afghanistan- - Domestication of animals and plants • Symbiotic development of sedentary agri. & pastoral nomadism- quite common in hills

  8. Agriculture in India • Indus civilization- Well provided with development of Agri & animal husbandry • Higher precipitation • Irrigation • Cultivation of rice, wheat & barley • Use of chem. Fertilizers (Gypsum & CaSO4) • Raising two crops a year

  9. Agriculture in India • Sixth century BC to 6TH century AD-Variety of sources: -Pali, Sangam, Sanskrit -Kautilya’sArthsastra & Dharmsastra • Classification of land • Irrigation • Export of items-sugar • Taxes & • Medicinal & aromatic plants

  10. Agriculture in India • Early medieval Period (600 AD to 1200 AD) • Agrarian structure • New type of tools & technology • Regional agri. –South India, Bengal & Gujarat British Period : -Initialy concerned with development - Ignored agriculture -Led to Bengal Famine

  11. Origin of Agriculture- Hypothesis • Several hypotheses but debate continues as none of them wholly satisfactory: • Climate change- ice age-11,000 yrs ago- favourable environment for farming • Population pressure • Resource concentration from desertification • Land ownership • Natural selection Greg Wadley & Angus Martin (1993)- cereals and milk contain ‘Exorphins’- drug like addictive properties

  12. Origin of Agriculture • Origin of agri. Can’t be because of particular invention • Why it took so long to settle and cultivate? • Gifted individuals – hunting can’t go forever, let’s change- is it better way of life? • Change is not easy to humans- discarding old and adopting new, nevertheless • Change is difficult but change is must for progress

  13. Domestication • First domestication to modern crop production: wild sp. –HYVs – MVs- through selection • Grain size, colour, tolerance to drought, disease and insect pests • Creation of agrobiodiversity • Movement with people- • land races were created with variability • Natural and human selection for countless generations • Supported nearly 1 billion people in early 19th century Hybridization and heredity- Mendel- modern crops

  14. Crop Nutrition, Production and Protection • Application of chemical fertilizer in early 20th century • Humus-the main source of nutrition • Understanding of photosynthesis came much later • Pest management- balanced ecosystem- 1200 BC botanical pesticidesused in China • Dams on river Nile in Egypt, Euphrattes and Tigris in Mesopotamia- Iraq • Irrigation practices- Mesopotamians evolved sophisticated irrigation system • Dams in Asia- Cauvery river in 1900 by Chola king • Farm implements- scratch plough –moldboard, sickles, spades and hoes

  15. Modern Agriculture • Till 18th century- traditional way • Scientific discoveries helped in modernization • Origin of Species – Darwin in 1859 • Mendel’s law of inheritance - 1869- 1900 • Leibig’s discovery in 1840 killed humus theory– chemical fertilizers industry in 1894 • Steam engine in 1858 VISIT AGRICULTURE SCIENCE MUSEUM in NASC

  16. Trends in food grain production in India Production X5 Productivity X3 Area X0.25 Popln.400 M-1.2B 1960-61- 82.02 MT-710kg/ha 1965-66- 72.35 MT-629kg/ha 1973-74-104.67 MT-827kg/ha

  17. Transformation of Agriculture Traditional to Modern

  18. Triggers of Growth • Science of Heredity- • Mendel :1866- 1900 • Plant nutrient- artificial fertilizers • Liebig : 1840 • Pest Management • Bordauxmixt. in early 20th century • Irrigation – • Early yrs. of 20th century • Mechanization- • Charles Hart & Charles Parr – Tractor in 1902

  19. Traditional V/s Modern Agriculture • Traditional • Small farm • Polyculture • Heterogenous germplasm • Little fertilizers & chemicals • Minimum tillage • Varying period for fallow • Modern • Large & small farms • Monoculture • Uniform varieties/hybrids • Extensive use of fert/chem. • Appropriate/timely tillage • Intensive land use

  20. Triggers of Growth • Science of heredity- Mendel 1866, 1900 • Demolished theories of inheritance • Concept of genes • Quantitative inheritance • Chemical fertilizers • Humus theory demolished- C bulk of dry matter from humus • Photosynthesis – CO2 + H2O = (CH2O) + O2 • Liebig 1840- C from atmospheric CO2 • Liebig’s patented manure- first inorganic fertilizers

  21. Triggers of Growth • Modern fert. Industry-Liebig 1894- Phosphate, lime, magnesia & potash • Direct synthesis of Ammonia from N2 and H2 in Germany by Frit Harber in 1913- Nobel Prize in Chemistry • P form TSP from Phosphoric acid, 1st started in Germany in 1870s • K from KCl – Murate of Potash- Germany, Russia, US, Cnada • Global prodn- 100 million tonnes Nutrient mining- partial replenishment • China- the largest producer of N fert. Followed by US & India • Declining TFP- 18/28 MT. (gap of 10 MT fertilizer) • Balanced fert. Application - NPK & micronutrients- 4:2:1 • Imbalanced application- leads to toxicity

  22. Triggers of Growth • Pest Management • Irish famine-1840- 1 million died- P. infestans • Bordeaux distt.- mixture - CuSO4 +lime • Chinese – botanical pesticides Organic pesticides • DDT in 1939 by Paul Muller at Geigy in Basel- Colarado potato beetle • Killed mosquitoes- saved thousands of lives • Most widely used • Organophosphorus compounds • Carbamates • Synthetic pyrethroids • Sulphonylureas Widespread use Developed countries- 0.49 kg/ha in 1961 to 1.30 kg/ha 2000 Developing countries-late starters- 0.66 in 1990- 1.02 kg/ha in 2000 Pesticide residues IPM

  23. Irrigation • Water availability • Water demand • Gravity & Arch dams • Increasing WUE • sprinkler • drip • micro irrigation

  24. Indian Agricultural Research Institute State-wise potential and actual area under micro-irrigation ( Area in 000 ha ) Total area under MI is currently 3.87 million ha against estimated potential of 42 million ha Major crops-field crops (cotton, groundnut, sugarcane) to vegetables and fruits (banana, papaya, mango, grapes) and plantation crops

  25. Mechanization • Early yrs of 20th century in US • 38% people engaged in Agri. • 3-4% today India: -1950- 8,000 tractors -2001-2.61 million machines -largest producer of tractor 400,000 units in 2009-10 -6,25,000 current yr. 2014 • combines Modern Agriculture: Seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, chemicals, machines = Led to increased output

  26. Impact of Modern Agriculture • Output of US agri. Doubled during 1910-1970 • Scientific knowledge/technology • Land grant Universities • Resesrch • Education • Extension • European agriculture • Wheat yields-doubled in UK • New varieties • Improved agronomy • Modern farm inputs

  27. Past and Projected Water Demand Irrigation is the largest consumer of water and there is a great scope of increasing efficiency of irrigation. Resources and Liabilities Fresh Water Resources – 4 % Land – 2.3 % Population – 16 % Rainfall – 1170 mm Dr. S. Raman, New Delhi Winter School, 20/3/09 XXXXXXXXXXXX

  28. Some Success Stories • Maize • Potato • Cotton • Soybean

  29. Trends in food grain production in India Production X5 Productivity X3 Area X0.25 1960-61-82.02 MT-710kg/ha 1965-66-72.35 MT-629kg/ha 1973-74-104.6 MT-827kg/ha 2010-11-241.5 MT-1921kg/ha

  30. Production and productivity of rice in India

  31. Production and Productivity of Wheat in India Area X 2.5 Prodn.x 8.5 Prody x3 1950-51: 6.5 MT-663 kg/ha 1960-61: 11 MT- 851 kg/ha 1963-64 : 730 kg/ha 1965-66: 10.4 MT-827kg/ha 1970-71: 21.8 MT-1172kg/ha

  32. Production and productivity of maize in India Prodn. x12 Yield x4 Area x3

  33. Bt Cotton in India Area covered during 2010 : 8.4 m ha 35

  34. Area, Production and Productivity in India 334 1050 3.2

  35. Area, Production and Productivity of Soybean around the World Source: USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service-www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/psdgetreport.

  36. GREEN REVOLUTIONBREAKTHROUGH IN WHEAT IMPROVEMENT WHY MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE? Class III

  37. Population Growth • 1 M yrs or more- 1st 8 Million people in 8,000 BC • 10,000 yrs. – 1st 1,000 M by 1830 • 100 yrs - 2nd 1,000 M by 1930 • 30 yrs. - 3rd 1,000 M by 1960 • 15 yrs. - 4th 1,000 M by 1975 • 25 yrs. - 6 billion by early 21st century • 2011 - 7 billion Oct. (6.928 b on July 01) • 2025 - 9.2 billion

  38. 1985-2050 + 4.5 bn ? 1950-1985 + 2.5 bn 2.5 bn First 4 million years Global Population Explosion Present Concerns: Current: >7 billion Poor: 1 billion (240 m in India) Underweight Children: Severely: 180 million Chronically: 800 million Vitamin A deficient: 200 million Pregnant Women: Anemia: 400 million 1/8 persons hungry Source - Paroda, 2011

  39. 2001 1991 846 mn 548 mn 361 mn 1951 India’s Population 2050 1500 mn (expected) 2011 1210 mn 1028 mn 1971

  40. Decennial Growth in Human Population • Graph • Ship-to-mouth • Life boat • Paddock Brothers’ Famine 1975

  41. Other Factors Developed Vs developing • Increased longevity Antibiotics in 1950s: Penicillin Chloromycetin • Industrial Revolution- strong production & distribution base for • Fert, pesticides, farm machinery Knowledge & technology Policy & investment Developing countries followed the suit

  42. Wheat Improvement in India • Domesticated in West Asia • Selection of land races by generations of farmers • Scientific breeding in early 20th century • North America, Europe, Russia, Japan & Australia • India- 1905 at IARI- Pure line selection • 1930-40 Hybridization – grain quality & disease resistance- Dr. BP Pal & Assoc. –Leaders

  43. Wheat Improvement in India-cont. • Started at IARI in 1905- Dr. BP Pal & associates-yield, quality & disease resistance • NP 700 & NP 800 series • NP 823- Early Maturing, good quality suitable for rainfed • NP 824- Good yield in plains & lower hills • NP 809- Resistant to 3 rusts & loose smut through hybridization • Ch. Ram Dhan & SM Sikkaat Govt. Agri. College & Research Instt. Lyallpur (faislabad) developed C series wheat in Punjab - yield 3-4 t/ha • 1947 av. Yield 700kg/ha – remained same for the last 40 yrs.

  44. Low Productivity of Indian Wheat Remedy of the Malady

  45. Wheat Yield in India ______________________________________ Year Yield ______________________________________ • 1950-51 :6.46 MT 663 kg/ha • 1960-61 : 11 MT 851 kg/ha • 1963-64 734 kg/ha • 1965-66: 10.4 MT- 827kg/ha • 1970-71: 21.8 MT- 1172kg/ha • Increase in yield not consistent

  46. Wheat improvement - Yield barrier • 20 varieties grown over 80 yrs. were analyzed (Kulshrestha and Jain , 1981) -1910-60 Tall -2 per decade for six deacdes-12 -1970-80 Dwarf -4 per decade-8 Evaluated for: -grain yield -HI -# effective tillers/sq. m -plant ht. -grain wt -total dry matter Tall var. showed significant differences for 1st 4 characters but did not show significant difference in biol. yield & grain. Wt K13 (Kanpur) and NP 165(IARI) showed significant but small improvement in yield 1940s, 50s & 60s no difference in grain yield despite concerted efforts Significant difference recorded in var. of 1970s & 80s Indian breeders struggled to break yield barrier over 60 yrs. But did not succeed

  47. Wheat ImprovementResponse to fertilizer • Inadequate availability • Lack of infrastructure for prodn. & distribution • Attempt made to develop varieties for high soil fertility • Tall varieties (115 cm or more) lodged at high doses beyond 40 Kg/ ha Nitrogen • Need for breeding stiff strawed, lodging resistant coupled with disease resistance & quality • SP Kohli-Sr. wheat Breeder in early 1960s initiated work for identifying sources of dwarfing with stiff straw but rust resistance was top priority