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ROCK DETECTIVE CLIFFORD LAMBETH!!. Rock Cycle . How the rock cycle works.

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Rock detective clifford lambeth


How the rock cycle works
How the rock cycle works

  • The rock cycle first step is when a volcanic eruption happens and there is lava/magma. After that the lava/magma cools down and becomes igneous rock For example, an igneous rock may weather away and its particles eventually combine to become a sedimentary rock. The same igneous rock may remain buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, where heat and pressure might convert it into a metamorphic rock. The same igneous rock, if it is buried even deeper, may actually melt to become magma-which may eventually recool and solidify to form a new igneous rock.

What are igneous rocks and how are they form
What are igneous rocks and how are they form

  • Igneous rocks are formed deep inside the earth where the temperature is very high.

  • The minerals in the earth are in liquid form and are called magma.

  • Magma is squeezed around inside the earth and as it pushes towards the surface of the earth, it starts to cool. As it cools, it turns to solid igneous rock.

  • Sometimes the magma cools very slowly and forms rocks.

  • Igneous rocks that cool slowly deep in the earth are called Intrusive igneous rocks and have large crystals. (Granite)


  • rocks that cool slowly deep in the earth are called Intrusive igneous rocks and have large crystals. (Granite)

  • If cools quickly it would be another type of rock. But if it cools slowly it will have fine grained or coursed grained rocks


  • Sometimes the magma erupts from a volcano. Magma is called lava when it reaches the earth's surface. Lava cools quickly and forms igneous rocks.

  • Igneous rocks that cool quickly on the surface of the earth form rocks with small crystals called extrusive rocks. If it cools quickly it would be extrusive rock or it will be coursed grain or fine grain but this is coarse grained.


  • It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly without crystal growth. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. This rock is fine grained.

Igneous rock in north carolina
Igneous rock in North Carolina

North Carolina

North Carolina Regions

North Carolina - Brief Geologic History

North Carolina's Geologic Belts

North Carolina's Volcanic Rocks

North Carolina's Garnet Deposits

North Carolina's Metallic Minerals

Appalachian Mountains

Black Mountains

Blue Ridge National Parkway

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Looking Glass Rock

Medoc Mountain State Park

Mount Airy

Mount Mitchell State Park

Salisbury Area Granites

Stone Mountain State Park

  • Andesite Basalt Diorite Gabbro Granite Obsidian Pegmatite Peridotite Pumice Rhyolite Scoria Tuff

  • These are all found in North Carolina and there locations.

Sedimentary rock
Sedimentary Rock

  • Sedimentary rock is a type of rock that is formed by sedimentation of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle and accumulate or minerals to precipitate from a solution. Particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, sediment was formed by weathering and erosion in a source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, mass movement, or glaciers.


  • earth's surface is constantly being eroded. This means that rocks are broken up into smaller pieces by weathering agents such as wind, water, and ice. These small pieces of rock turn into pebbles, gravel, sand, and clay. They tumble down rivers and streams. These pieces settle in a new place and begin to pile up and the sediments form flat layers. Over a long period of time, the pieces become pressed together and form solid rock called sedimentary rock. Most sedimentary rocks form under water. Most of the earth has been covered by water some time in the past. 70% of the earth is covered by water now. So sedimentary rocks are common all over the world. Sedimentary rocks are often rich in fossils.

Rock detective clifford lambeth

  • Coal is very commonly used today to produce electricity. In fact approximately 50% of electricity in the U.S. is generated by burning coal. Coal is burned to heat water and convert it to steam. That steam is pressurized and can be used to turn a turbine which produces electricity. Coal is also used in iron and steel production, cement manufacturing, in the production of coal tar, home heating, and any number of industrial applications that require heat.


  • What is sandstone it used for?Sandstone is used in countertops, tiles, concrete, play sand, glass filing, polishing metal, sandblasting, and in making buildings.


  • Limestone has many uses. Those uses include patio pavers, landscaping rock, road gravel, concrete aggregate and soil conditioner. In addition, limestone is used as an additive to paint and other products, and a source of calcium carbonate which is used in a great deal of products including antacids. Cooked limestone is used to make Portland cement, the key ingredient in mortars, cements, and concrete.

Sedimentary rocks in north carolina
Sedimentary rocks in North Carolina

  • Some sedimentary rocks found in North Carolina are:

    Chert, Coal, Limestone, Breccias, salt Rock, Iron Ore, conglomerate

    These are places in N.C with sedimentary rock in them.

  • Milton Belt

  • Kings Mountain Belt

  • Charlotte Belt

  • Raleigh Belt

  • Eastern Slate Belt

  • Coastal Plain Belt

What are metamorphic rocks
What are metamorphic rocks?

  • Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. How do sedimentary and igneous rocks change? The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure, which fosters heat build up, and this causes them to change. If you exam metamorphic rock samples closely, you'll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock are.

Sandstone turning into quartzite
Sandstone turning into quartzite

  • Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring, and stair steps. Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction and for railway ballast.

Shale turning into slate
Shale turning into slate

  • Slate roofs were once very popular. Turkey calls are made from slate. Sinks have been made with slate. Patios, walkways, stones to sharpen knives, even tabletops have been made from slate.

  • Slate is used in buildings, roofs for example, Slate tiles are often used for interior and exterior flooring , stairs etc, and because it is a good electrical insulator and fireproof, it was used to construct early 20th century electric switchboards and relay controls for large electric motors. Fine slate can also be used as a whetstone to hone knives.

Limestone being changed into marble
Limestone being changed into marble

  • Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.

Metamorphic rocks
Metamorphic Rocks

  • The Inner Piedmont Belt is the most intensely deformed and metamorphosed segment of the Piedmont. They include gneiss and schist that have been intruded by younger granitic rocks. The northeast-trending Brevard fault zone forms much of the boundary between the Blue Ridge and the Inner Piedmont belts.


  • Diamond is the only gem known to man that is made of a single element, Carbon, besides graphite. Diamond is completely made of Carbon atoms. Diamonds have many uses. 20% of diamonds are used for jewelry. The other 80% for using diamonds is for industrial. These uses are: cutting tools, polishing hard metals, phonograph, videodisc needles, and bearings for laboratory instruments.

Diamonds in n c and the country
Diamonds in N.C and the country

  • Gem Mining in Franklin, North Carolina

  • Arkansas, Colorado and Wyoming.

  • How do we get it ?

  • Diamonds are mined from diamond mines.

  • Artisanal Mining

  • Hard Rock Mining

  • Marine Mining

  • Open Pit Mining

  • Placer Mining

  • These are the 5 ways they mine for diamonds.