Page 3 • Moishe • Beadle – caretaker of the synagogue • No surname – no true identity, recognition as a man • “jack of all trades” (master of none): he knew a lot about many things, but no true religious education, uneducated- Eliezer goes to him for education • Why was he the exception to the rule regarding how the poor were treated by the majority of the Jewish community?
Continues • Anaphora • Repetition of a word, or phrase, for emphasis • List of what he did that gave him acceptance from the adult community. • “He stayed out of people’s way”. “His presence bothered no one”. “He had mastered the art of rendering himself insignificant, invisible”. • This is what the Nazi’s are counting on to destroy the Jewish people. • IRONY: Later when Moishe returns.
Eliezer’s view of Moishe Softness in his tone. Childlike images • Simile: “awkward as a clown” – circus • “his waiflike shyness” – child who needs protection; orphan; sweet; no conflict. • “wide, dreamy eyes, gazing off into the distance” – childlike imagination (this will later influence Eliezer as to the credibility of Moishe’s claims) • “He spoke little. He sang, or rather he chanted” • Religious themes – Shekhinah in Exile; Kabbalah • Eleiser – 13 years old; deeply observant; bar mitzvah age. Influential age • Following all the rules and laws of his faith.
Page 4 • Influence to begin independent thoughts; mysticism of the Kabbalah. • His father wants him to be more educated. Protective father. • “You are too young for that. Maimonides tells us that one must be thirty before venturing into the world of mysticism, a world fraught with peril. First you must study the basic subjects, those you are able to comprehend.”“There are no Kabbalists in Sighet.”“He wanted to drive the idea of studying Kabbalah from my mind.” • A little bit of knowledge is a dangerous thing. Important to know the basics before developing an intellectual understanding of religious practices and beliefs that may be flawed. Prevents confusion – or at least is a step in the right direction. • (grandmother) (father – bird) • Father well respected by the community; however, no father/son discussion when questioned. Eliezer then goes on his own quest of his faith through Moishe. Parents often make this mistake. “I am your father/mother, trust what I say without question.” This oftentimes causes rebellion. – good/bad. • Maimonides –Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon – first to write a code of Jewish law all must follow. Mishneh Torah
Page 4 & 5 • Begins to ask questions. Why? Why? Why? • It is always good to ask questions. From that, we attain knowledge; critical thinking skills; ability to differentiate between what is truth and fallacy. • Is challenged by Moishe. Why? Why? Why? • “Why do you cry when you pray?” Challenges his faith. Does he do it out of rote? – mechanical repetition, without real understanding of its meaning or significance. • Repetition of “Why did I pray? Why did I live? Why did I breathe?” • Eliezer accepts his ignorance. Hard thing to do for anyone. We don’t like to admit that we are wrong. Then, we must admit that we are NOT PERFECT! • Moishe knows why he prays: “I pray to the God within me for the strength to ask Him the real questions.”
Quick Write #2 • Moishe challenges Eleiser’s understanding of his faith through the quote: • “There are a thousand and one gates allowing entry into the orchard of mystical truth. Every human being has his own gate. He must not err and wish to enter the orchard through a gate other than his own. That would present a danger not only for the one entering but also for those who are already inside.” • Analyze this quote. What does Moishe mean? What is the orchard of mystical truth? What are the gates? • 250 words
Page 6 • “Moishe the Beadle was a foreigner.” • “Crammed into cattle cars.” • Hungarian police • Influence of Germany over Hungary so far • “cried silently” - try to be insignificant; invisible, don’t fight back….accept…accept. • Not happening to us..just the foreigners…value? • “What do you expect? That’s war..” too accepting • USA – Japanese • Long Beach • For their safety • Paranoia
Hungary’s Part • While anti-Jewish legislation was a common phenomenon in Hungary, the Holocaust itself did not reach Hungary until 1944. • In March of 1944, however, the German army occupied Hungary, installing a puppet government (a regime that depends not on the support of its citizenry but on the support of a foreign government) under Nazi control. • Adolf Eichmann, the executioner of the Final Solution, came to Hungary to oversee personally the destruction of Hungary’s Jews. The Nazis operated with remarkable speed: in the spring of 1944, the Hungarian Jewish community, the only remaining large Jewish community in continental Europe, was deported to concentration camps in Germany and Poland. Eventually, the Nazis murdered 560,000 Hungarian Jews, the overwhelming majority of the prewar Jewish population in Hungary.
Page 6 • Time gives way to forgetting what happened. • Rumors – Galicia, working, content..yes. Went to Galicia…BUT…. • Weather is pleasant; back to normal • Moishe returns • Tells them the truth • “forced to dig huge trenches…..took place in Galicia.” • Character of the German soldiers • Jews = animals, cattle, dogs, target practice
Page 7-8 • Moishe • Joy in his eyes gone • No longer sang • No longer quiet • “Jews, listen to me! That’s all I ask of you…. • “They think I’m mad,” ….tears, like drops of wax… • Simile; candle melting; moving from the light into the darkness of Hell to come • Christ-figure: Anaphora: “I was saved….I…I…I…only no one is listening to me…” Light of the World – warning of the evils of Satan. Do we listen? They refuse to see the light of truth. They ostracize him; reject him totally as a member of their community. • Becomes silent. • Beaten • Eyes cast down; avoiding people’s gaze
Page 8- 1944 • False hope: Germany would be defeated; only a matter of time. • Anaphora: “The trees were in bloom. It was a year like so many others, with its spring, its engagements, its weddings, and its births.” – A sense of normalcy. Trying to convince themselves that all is ok. • “The Red Army….Hitler will not be able to harm us….” They refuse to see the truth. What about all the millions who have already died? • “so many millions of people….in the middle of the 20th century?” Not possible….difficult to accept the possibility of something so evil….do we then doubt Satan’s existence?
Page 9 • Fascist party takes over Hungary • They did not understand what that meant. • Begin to hear stories. Worried…for a moment. “the Jews of Budapest live in an atmosphere of fear and terror. Anti-Semitic acts take place every day…” • Simile – “news spread like wildfire” • Flames fast and furious but burns out quickly...Rationalize • No worry..won’t come to us…too far…again with rationalizations…not us…therefore, no concern..
Page 9 • Jewish people refuse to see the signs: • German soldiers enter their town. • Officers stayed in Jewish homes. • Attitude distant but polite…wolf in sheep’s clothing….Satan hides well…keep those rose-colored glasses on as long as possible…then, it is too late… • “death helmets” – bringing death to all Jews
Page 10 • Germans are waiting for the right moment. Keep the Jewish people calm and unsuspecting. “Three days after he moved in, he brought Mrs. Kahn a box of chocolates…..There they are, your Germans. What do you say now? Where is their famous cruelty?” Refuse to see the reality of what is going to happen. • “The Germans were already in our town…the Fascists…the verdict - (DEATH)…the Jews were still smiling.” • Very naive
10 • Passover – 8-day celebration • The Jews celebrated their Passover Feast in remembrance of God's deliverance from death during the time of Moses. • Sighet - • Weather perfect – however, synagogues closed. Acceptance? Don’t want to cause conflict…don’t complain. Maybe they will go away. • Celebrate during this time; but they are pretending. Deep down they are concerned, but they don’t want to admit it. Want the celebrations to be over so they have no reason to celebrate.
Passover Moses was instructed to lead God's people out of Egypt and save them from the evil and ungodly Pharaoh. Because of Pharaoh's disbelief in the power of the One True God, Yahweh (God) sent a series of ten plagues upon the Egyptians: the Nile turned to blood and at various times the land was filled with frogs, gnats, flies, hail, locusts, and darkness. In one awesome act of God's ultimate authority, He sent one final devastating plague: every firstborn of every household would be annihilated. God would shield the Israelites from this judgment if they would follow the instructions He gave to Moses and Aaron. The specific instructions are outlined in Exodus 12:1-11. Each family was to take a lamb and slaughter it at the same time at twilight after a certain number of days. Then they were to paint the sides and top of their doorways with some of this blood. Once this was done and all the meat of the lamb was eaten in accordance with God's instructions, God would spare the Israelites from death.
10 still • 7th day – “the curtain finally rose” • The play is about to begin…HORROR is behind the curtain. • Arrested the leaders of the Jewish community • Gold and all valuables taken; forbidden – help from the Hungarian police. • Metaphor – “The race toward death had begun” • Nazis want this done ASAP! • Moishe confronts them…
Page 11 Mom – tries to keep things together; job as mom. Suffer in silence. Nurturer; worry about her children. Yellow star – BRANDED LIKE CATTLE Reaction – no big deal; it’s just a patch; “it’s not lethal.” IRONY – they have been marked for slaughter. Ghetto Nazis are slowly killing the Jewish people’s “being”. 1st step has been easy – to accept the painless things being done to them. Baby steps.
11-12 Ghetto – enclosed within barbed wire. Cattle. Comfort zone. Away from the Germans. Safe…not really…but let’s pretend… “in fact, we felt this was not a bad thing.” Anaphora: “We would no longer have to look at all those hostile faces, endue those hate-filled states…No more fear….No more anguish…We would live among Jews, among brothers.” NO..NO..NO…this cannot be our reality. Euphemism: Nice way of saying something uncomfortable, bad, etc… “Of course, there still were unpleasant moments.” JEWS BEING TAKEN AWAY. Personification: “The ghetto was ruled by….delusion.”
Step 2 • Page 13 • German Officers – different mood; mother feels the change • News: Transports; “The ghetto was to be liquidated entirely.” Irony –The Final Solution: Liquidate the Jewish people • Now they are worried and want to know everything. Secret on threat of death. • Page 15 • Irony “Our backyard looked like a marketplace….All this under a magnificent blue sky.” Irony – total chaos – blue(peace and tranquility)
Page 16 • Exhaustion – “like molten lead”; total melt down; brains slowly moving to inevitability. • Pain of waiting… “there was joy, yes, joy.” Irony…they think that this was hell...they have no idea of the hell they are entering. • Imagery: juxtaposition of Blazing sunny day vs dead, empty houses (personification) = darkness within the hearts of the people- fear-despair
PAGE 17 • “There they went, defeated, their bundles…They passed me by, like beaten dogs.” • Juxtaposition of good vs. evil • A summer sun vs. an open tomb • Life vs death • Personification : • “gaping doors and windows looked out into the void.” Simile – surreal image “…like a small summer cloud, like a dream in the first hours of dawn.” “The verdict had been delivered”….death..
Page 19 • “My mind was empty.” • “I felt little sadness.” • numb • Father – emotion now • cries • Mother- strong, no emotion (MASK) • Hungarian police • First oppressors • Hatred remains to this day • Non-Jews • Ignore the reality- hide their guilt for doing nothing • Refuse to fight for their neighbors – condone ?
Page 20 - 21 • Move to small ghetto • Still have faith • “Oh god, Master of the Universe, in your infinite compassion, have mercy on us..” • Still have hope • “..we were beginning to get used to the situation…miserable little lives until the end of the war.” • Verbal irony • “…a big farce…just want to steal our valuables…easier to do when the owners are on vacation…” • Free will taken away • “…we were all people condemned to the same fate-still unknown.”
Page 22 • Change of control – irony – worse • “It had been agreed that the Jewish Council would handle everything by itself.” • Jews have been conditioned to go along with the program. Comfort zone to have friends organize the march toward death. • Non-Jews • Again – no one stands up for humanity • “..behind the shutters, our friends of yesterday were probably waiting for the moment when they could loot our homes.” • Plan has been successful • “…cattle cars were waiting…cars were sealed…one person...in charge...someone escapes…person shot.” • “Two Gestapo officers…all smiles; all things considered, it had gone very smoothly.”
One-page, typed reflection Does God exist? If not, why? If yes, and you believe that He is the Creator of all things, did He create evil? If so, why? Or – did He create good but allowed evil to exist? How? Why? Give at least three examples from your personal knowledge/experience. DUE: WEDNESDAY/THURSDAY – 50 POINTS
Quick Write #5 “ We should stop talking so much about the Holocaust. What’s past is past.” 250+ words Agree or disagree At least 3 examples from your historical knowledge/personal experiences
Page 23 • Juxtaposition of beauty vs evil • “The lucky ones … could watch the blooming countryside flit by.” • Loss of sense of modesty, humanity • “Freed of normal constraints….let go of their inhibitions…caressed one another.” • Human contact…love…necessary for survival of humanity. • Metaphor • “Our eyes opened. Too late.” • Reality of their delusions of safety. No escape from Hell.
Page 24 • Inhumanity to humanity • “…shot like dogs.” • “The world had become a hermetically sealed cattle car.” • Air-tight • Seal off the “contamination” of the Jews • Smothering • No one from the outside can help
Page 25 - 28 • Mrs. Schachter • Irony of sanity vs insanity • Insane – sees the truth – prophetess • Sane – refuse to see the truth • “Fire! I see a fire! I see a fire!” – pity • Simile – “…she looked like a withered tree in a field of wheat.” • Fear – “…we felt the abyss opening beneath us.” (abyss- immeasurable chasm/void; total darkness) • Like Moishe, “Jews, listen to me!...” warning; rejection • Rationalization: “She is hallucinating…thirsty…flames devouring her…” (personification) • Cruelty breeds cruelty • “bound and gagged her” • “…received several blows to the head that could have been lethal.” • Approval of the rest to beat her • “Keep her quiet! Make that madwoman shut up. She’s not the only one here…” • Struck again • “Jews, look! Look at the fire! Look at the flames!” And as the train stopped this time we saw flames rising from a tall chimney into a black sky.”
Quick Writes 6 & 7 For each quote, write a 250+ word response as to your agreement or disagreement with the statement. Include at least 3 examples from your historical knowledge and/or personal experience. #6 “You can get used to anything.” #7 “You should usually follow orders.”
Fair and Balanced • It is important to understand that the majority of Germans were not Nazis. • Most of the concentration camps were not in Germany; this gave the Nazi government the ability to convince the German people that the camps that they did have were only work camps or training camps. The idea of the reality of what was happening is something so heinous, that the normal person could not comprehend the truth of what was happening to the Jewish people. • The camps in Germany were “work camps”. Why would anyone think differently? • March 22, 1933 - Nazis open Dachau concentration camp near Munich, to be followed by Buchenwald near Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbrück for women. These were the “work camps.” • This era was not a time of television, internet, cable, 24-hour news. The people only had radio and newspaper. These two media have the ability to propagandize without question. • The most of the free world was ignorant as well. • Ex. We do not know what horrors may be happening 50 miles away from our own homes, except for internet, 24-hour cable, the ability to move about freely and quickly.
German Jews • At Wuerzburg, Germany, Jewish deportees carrying bundles and suitcases march through town in columns behind Nazi officials riding in an open car. • The Jews of Wuerzburg were taken by police officials into the Platzscher Garten hotel. In one room of the hotel, their luggage was inspected by Gestapo officials and all valuables were confiscated. The luggage was then taken to a collecting area, from where it would supposedly be taken to the deportation train. However, the deportees never saw their luggage again. • In a second room, the deportees surrendered all their personal papers showing ownership of securities and property. They were left only with their identification cards, watches and wedding rings. In the next room the deportees underwent body searches for concealed valuables. Even gold fillings were removed from their teeth. Next, their identification cards were stamped "evakuiert" [deported]. • They were then surrendered to an SS detachment until ready to leave for the railway station. To facilitate the march through the city and the boarding of the trains, the deportees were organized into groups led by Jewish ordners. The transport traveled to Nuremberg, where it was attached to a larger Judentransport departing for ghettos and concentration camps in the East, outside of Germany
Saviors • Leaders and diplomats • Per Anger, Swedish diplomat in Budapest who originated the idea of issuing provisional passports to Hungarian Jews to protect them from arrest and deportation. Anger collaborated with Raoul Wallenberg to save the lives of thousands of Jews. • Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg - Swedish diplomat, who negotiated the release of 27,000 people (a significant number of which were Jews) to hospitals in Sweden. • Jacob (Jack) Benardout - British diplomat to Dominican Republic before and during World War Two. Issued numerous Dominican Republic visas to Jews in Germany. Only 16 Jewish families arrived in the Dominican Republic (the other Jews dispersed into countries along the way e.g. Britain, America) and so created the Jewish community of The Dominican Republic
Saviors • José Castellanos Contreras - a Salvadoran army colonel and diplomat who, while working as El Salvador's Consul General for Geneva from 1942-45, and in conjunction with George Mantello, helped save at least 13,000 Central European Jews from Nazi persecution by providing them with false papers of Salvadoran nationality. • Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, German diplomatic attaché in Denmark. Alerted Danish politician Hans Hedtoft about the imminent German plans deport to Denmark's Jewish community, thus enabling the following rescue of the Danish Jews
Saviors • Frank Foley - British MI6 agent undercover as a passport officer in Berlin, saved around 10,000 people by issuing forged passports to Britain and the British Mandate of Palestine. • Varian Fry - American journalist who saved 2,000 - 4,000 Jews, including many prominent artists and intellectuals. • Albert Göring - German businessman (and younger brother of leading Nazi Hermann Göring) who helped Jews and dissidents survive in Germany • Paul Grüninger - Swiss commander of police who provided falsely dated papers to over 3,000 refugees so they could escape Austria following the Anschluss. • Wilm Hosenfeld - German officer who helped pianist Wladyslaw Szpilman, a Polish Jew, among many others. • Prince Constantin Karadja - Romanian diplomat, who saved over 51,000 Jews from deportation and extermination, as credited by Yad Vashem in 2005
Saviors • Jan Karski- Polish emissary of Armia Krajowa to Western Allies and eye-witness of the Holocaust. • Necdet Kent - Turkish Consul General at Marseille, who granted Turkish citizenship to hundreds of Jews. At one point he entered an Auschwitz-bound train at enormous personal risk to save 70 Jews, to whom he had granted Turkish citizenship, from deportation. • Zofia Kossak-Szczucka - Polish founder of Zegota. • Carl Lutz - Swiss consul in Budapest, managed to provide safe-conducts for emigration to Palestine to many thousands of Hungarian Jews.
Saviors • Luis Martins de Souza Dantas - Brazilian in charge of the Brazilian diplomatic mission in France. He granted Brazilian visas to several Jews and other minorities persecuted by the Nazis. He was proclaimed as Righteous among the Nations in 2003 • George Mantello (b. George Mandl) - El Salvador's honorary consul for Hungary, Romania, and Czechoslovakia - provided fictive Salvadoran citizenship papers for thousands of Jews and spearheaded a publicity campaign that eventually ended the deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz • Paul V. McNutt - United States High Commissioner of the Philippines, 1937-1939, who facilitated the entry of Jewish refugees into the Philippines • Helmuth James Graf von Moltke - adviser to the Third Reich on international law; active in Kreisau Circle resistance group, sent Jews to safe haven countries.
Saviors • Delia Murphy - wife of Dr. Thomas J. Kiernan, Irish minister in Rome 1941-1946, who worked with Hugh O'Flaherty and was part of the network that saved the lives POWs and Jews from the hands of the Gestapo • Giovanni Palatucci - Italian police official who saved several thousand. • Giorgio Perlasca - Italian. When Ángel Sanz Briz was ordered to leave Hungary, he falsely claimed to be his substitute and continued saving some thousands more Jews. • Dimitar Peshev - Deputy Speaker of the Bulgarian Parliament. • Frits Philips - Dutch industrialist who saved 382 Jews by insisting to the Nazis that they were indispensable employees of Philips.
Saviors • Witold Pilecki - the only person who volunteered to be imprisoned in Auschwitz, organised a resistance inside the camp and as a member of Armia Krajowa sent the first reports on the camp atrocities to the Polish Government in Exile, from where they were passed to the rest of the Western Allies. • Karl Plagge - a Major in the Wehrmacht who issued work permits in order to save almost 1,000 Jews (see The Search for Major Plagge: The Nazi Who Saved Jews, by Michael Good) • Eduardo Propper de Callejón - First secretary in the Spanish embassy in Paris who stamped and signed passports almost non-stop for four days in 1940 to let Jewish refugees escape to Spain and Portugal.
Savior • Traian Popovici - Romanian mayor of Cernăuţi (Chernivtsi): saved 20,000 Jews of Bukovina. • Manuel L. Quezon - President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, 1935-1941, assisted in resettling Jewish refugees on the island of Mindanao • Florencio Rivas - Consul General of Uruguay in Germany, who allegedly hid during Kristallnacht and later provided passports to one houndred and fifty Jews • Gilberto Bosques Saldívar - General Consul of Mexico in Marseilles, France. For two years he issued Mexican visas to around 40,000 Jews and political refugees, allowing them to escape to Mexico and other countries. He was imprisoned by the Nazis in 1943 and released to Mexico in 1944
Saviors • Ángel Sanz Briz - Spanish consul in Hungary. Saved, together with Giorgio Perlasca, more than 5,000 Jews in Budapest by issuing Spanish passports to them. • Abdol-Hossein Sardari - Head of Consular affairs at the Iranian Embassy in Paris. He saved many Iranian Jews and gave 500 blank Iranian passports to an acquaintance of his to be used by non-Iranian Jews in France. • Oskar Schindler - German businessman whose efforts to save his 1,200 Jewish workers were recounted in the book Schindler's Ark and the film Schindler's List. • Eduard Schulte - German industrialist, the first to inform Allies about the mass extermination of Jews. • Irena Sendler - Polish head of Zegota children's department: saved 2,500 Jewish children.
Saviors • Ho Feng Shan - Chinese Consul in Vienna, who freely issued visas to Jews. • Henryk Slawik - Polish diplomat, saved 5,000-10,000 people in Budapest, Hungary. • Aristides de Sousa Mendes - Portuguese diplomat in Bordeaux, who signed about 30,000 visas to help Jews and persecuted minorities to escape the Nazis and The Holocaust. • Chiune Sugihara - Japanese consul to Lithuania, 2,140 (mostly Polish) Jews and an unknown number of additional family members were saved by passports, many unauthorized, provided by him in 1940. • Selâhattin Ülkümen - Turkish diplomat who saved the lives of some 42 Jewish Turkish families, more than 200 persons, among a Jewish community of some 2000 after the Germans occupied the island of Rhodes in 1944.
Saviors • Raoul Wallenberg - Swedish diplomat, saved up to 100,000 Jews. Wallenberg saved the lives of tens of thousands of Jews condemned to certain death by the Nazis were thus saved. All inhabitants have been honored by Yad Vashem. • Moissac, France There was a Jewish boarding home and orphanage in this town. When the mayor was told that the Nazis were coming the older students would go camping for several days, the younger students were boarded with families in the area and told to treat as members of their immediate family and the oldest students hid in the house. When it became too dangerous for the students to stay there any longer they made sure that every student had a safe place to go to. If the students again had to move the counsellors from the boarding house arranged for a new place and even escorted them to the new housing.
Saviors • Sir Nicholas Winton - British stockbroker who organized the Czech Kindertransport which sent 669 children (most of them Jewish) to foster parents ln England and Sweden from Czechoslovakia and Austria after Kristallnach. Sir Nicholas has been nominated for the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize • Namik Kemal Yolga - Vice-Consul at the Turkish Embassy in Paris who saved numerous Turkish Jews from deportation. • Guelfo Zamboni - Consul General at Thessaloniki who gave false papers to save the lives of over 300 Jews residing there. • Albert Battel - a German Wehrmacht officer.
Saviors • Albert Bedane - of Jersey, provided shelter to a Jewish woman, as well as others sought by the German occupiers of the Channel Islands. • Victor Bodson helped Jews escape from Germany through an underground escape route in Luxembourg. • Corrie ten Boom, rescued many Jews in the Netherlands by sheltering them at her home. - was sent to Ravensbrück • Stefania Podgorska Burzminski and Helena Podgorska at age 16 and 7 (Helena was her sister), they smuggled out of the ghettos and saved thirteen Jews from the liquidation of the ghettos.
Saviors • Sgt.-Major Charles Coward was an English POW who smuggled over 400 Jews out of Monowitz labour camp. • Miep Gies, Jan Gies, Bep Voskuijl, Victor Kugler, and Johannes Kleiman hid Anne Frank and seven others in Amsterdam, Netherlands for two years. • Alexandre Glasberg, Ukrainian-French priest who helped hundreds of French Jews escape deportation. • Friedrich Kellner, justice inspector, who helped Julius and Lucie Abt, and their infant son, John Peter, escape from Laubach. • Stanislaw Kielar – two girls from Reisenbach family • Janis Lipke from Latvia, protected and hid around 40 Jews from the Nazis in Riga. • Heralda Luxin, young woman who sheltered Jewish children in her cellar. • Józef and Stefania Macugowscy, hid six members of the Radza family, and several others, in Nowy Korczyn, Poland. • Shyqyri Myrto, Albanian rescuer of Jozef Jakoel and his sister Keti. • JUDr Rudolf Štursa, a lawyer, and Jan Martin Vochoč, an Old Catholic priest, in Prague baptized Jews on demand and issued over 1,500 baptism certificates.
Saviors • Villages helping Jews • Yaruga, Ukraine • Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, in the Haute-Loire département in France, which saved up to 5,000 Jews. • Markowa, Poland, where 17 Jews survived the war. Many families hid their Jewish neighbours there and some paid the ultimate price. • Wiktoria and Józef Ulm, their 6 children and unborn baby were shot dead by the Germans for hiding the Szall and Goldman families. • Dorota and Antoni Szylar - hid seven members of Weltz family. • Julia and Józef Bar - hid five members of Reisenbach family. • Michal Bar - hid Jakub Lorbenfeld. • Jan and Weronika Przybylak - hid Jakub Einhorn. • Tršice, Czech Republic, many people from this village helped hide a Jewish family, six of them were given the honorific of Righteous among the Nations. • Nieuwlande, The Netherlands - during the war this small village contained 117 inhabitants. They unanimously decided in 1942 and 1943 that every household would give shelter to one Jewish household or individual during the war, thus making it impossible that anyone in the small village would betray their neighbours. Dozens of Jews