Tekst Lien Russian Foreign Policy. Lecture Series The Concept of Russia. Aim of the course : give insights in Russia’s FP and illuminate characteristics of Russia’s FP behaviour. Russia in the world: balancing relations between EU and CIS (these are the 2 areas the main focus will be on)
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The Concept of Russia
the essence of Russian Foreign Policy
both under Kozyrev and under Primakov, the Russian diplomatic elite succeeded in keeping open both FP options: Co-operation in post-Soviet space and relations with the West (G7). So unlike this visualization, one could better visualize the FP in these two phases in the following way.
East & Near Abroad
1991 1992 1994 1996 1997
1992 CIS treaty on collective security(signed by Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan new signed 28/4 Dushan °ODKB (org of the treaty on coll sec)
1994: member of ASEAN (Association of Souteast asian nations) regional forum
1996: Shanghai Five China, Russia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan This group was originally created as a forum to resolve old Soviet-Chinese border disputes.
April 1997: Union with Belarus
July 1997: full dialogue partner in ASEAN
March 1992 Russia becomes member of Council of Baltic Sea States
25/12/91: Russia takes over UN membership
1994 PCA signed with EU
February 1996: Russia becomes member of Council of Europe
May 1997: Founding Act with NATO
Russia-Nato permanent joint council
December 1997:start of Northern Dimension Initiative in EU
In this light, we can see the proclaimed ‘romantic’, pro-Western stance under Kozyrev maybe simply as a normalisation of relations with the West after seventy years of communism. Casier: ‘The Kozyrev era was maybe more typical of the late Soviet days and the rhetoric of Reformism, than it was typical of a fully developed foreign policy.’ (Casier 2000)
policy analysts often speak of a Kozyrev and a Primakov-doctrine but hardly speak of an Ivanov-doctrine. Attribute it to > Putin was such an eye-catching newcomer on the scene not due to invisibility of Ivanov as a foreign minister or to his capabilities. The attention for Putin is inherent maybe to the ‘elected monarchy’ (Shevtsova, Malfliet) that Russian Presidency already had started to become since Yeltsin.
A new direction in Russian foreign policy?
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
June 2001: Shanghai FiveShanghai Cooperation Organisation
December 1999: agreement on formation ofUnion State with Belarus
January / June 2000: Military Doctrine and Concept of National Security
May 2001: Eurasian Economic Community Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
June 1999: Common Strategy
October 1999: Medium Term Strategy
2001 Common European Economic Space Putin & Prodi charged high level group to define the concept for economic relations in the medium term
March 2003: Wider Europe - Neighbourhood Initiative
May 2002: 19+1 formula: new Russia-NATO council
Go West, Go East, or focus on the Near Abroad?
Does Russia have to choose?
Foreign policy choice determined by mutually advantageous pragmatism with economic undertone
! Russian idea hasn’t vanished from Russian society, but discourse in FP is more straightforwardly pragmatic and less terminology reminiscent of the Russian empire, panslavism and slavic brotherhood’ is used