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Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition. Time to pull out those maps. Ming and Qing Empires. Here is your reference point - BEIJING. Qing. MING. FIRST - On your map mark the Ming dynasty SECOND - mark all the extended boundaries that make the Qing dynasty. Ming Dynasty of China 1368-1600.

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Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition


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    1. Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition • Time to pull out those maps....

    2. Ming and Qing Empires Here is your reference point - BEIJING Qing MING FIRST - On your map mark the Ming dynasty SECOND - mark all the extended boundaries that make the Qing dynasty

    3. Ming Dynasty of China 1368-1600 MING • Early experienced sailors - used boats called junks • Spent $ on northern defense rather than explorations • fortified Great Wall in N. China. • gave land in area to soldiers for defense. • Restored Confucian ways. • Scholar gentry most important • merit system in securing gov’t offices • farmers • artisans • merchants (lowest b/c they produce nothing) • Nothing foreign allowed - no trade - no foreign people - they considered themselves self sufficient • DECLINE 1644 Northern tribes united under Manchurian ruler take over. Ming dynasty dies out.

    4. Qing Dynasty of China 1644-1850 • Kept Chinese culture and society - • including Confucianism • Made native traditional Han Chinese wear • queue (tail) to signify submission • Traditional Manchu homeland only for • Manchurian - no intermarry - keep own language • Economy - grows, specialization in areas • canals • silk road • merchants become more important • Society • literature flourished. Philology - study of history of languages • Decline • corruption, disasters, foreigners pressure to be allowed to trade • White Lotus Rebellions - peasants rebel. • 1796-1800 then off/on ‘til 1850 • weakened Qing Qing

    5. China and the Europeans Chinese culture views outsiders as inferior barbarians The Portuguese o Early 1500 Portuguese sailors work around coast to China. Some trade o 1557 – Trading station allowed at Macao o Jesuit missionaries o Astronomy open imperial court (they who had to predict such things) o Powerful positions allowed. o Catholic converts w/in high officials o Influence imperial policy Mark Macao on your map

    6. China and the Europeans The British o 1600 Tea – all the rage in Br. - British East India Tea Company monopolized trade o Restrictions: must deal w/ only few Ch merchants. Special foreign settlements o Two changes o Free trade ideas ♣ Reaction to mercantilism. ♣ Advocated by other tea merchants not in the loop of Br East India Co ♣ Asked Ch to open more ports – rejected o Opium Trade ♣ Trade w Ch meant lots of silver flowing out of Ch economy ♣ Trade was for cotton from India but not enough Ch buy ♣ Intro new product: Opium ♣ Devasted Ch society ♣ Huge trade imbalance. ♣ Br refuse to stop

    7. China and the Europeans The British o o Opium War o 1839-1842. British defeat the Chinese o 1842 Treaty of Nanjing o Hong Kong to Br. Special living places, enclaves, special rules, extraterritoriality - until 1999 when it reverted back to China o More o Unequal treaties o More concessions Kwoloon land more ports o Now other foreign powers – Russia France, etc. but not the U.S. Mark Taiwan on your map Mark Hong Kong on your map

    8. China and the Europeans Rebellions o mid 1800s Hong Xiuguan Christian convert. Wants new dynasty. Lots of destruction lots of damange in Yangtze River Valley and in southern china o Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 (this after the White Lotus Rebellion of earlier times (1796-1850) o Seriously weakened Qing dynasty o Foreign powers take advantage and estb more footholds

    9. Japanese Shogunate Mark Japan on your map 1500-1860 o Late 1500s 3 daimyo emerge as leaders Built a centralized feudal system in Japan

    10. Japanese Shogunate Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi o Either weakened diamyo by reducing territory and with sword hunt among peasants. o Peasants may not become warriors o Invaded Korea 2x but Chinese helped Korea defeat Toyotomi Tokugawa Ieyasu o Defeated his enemies. Capitol at Edo (now known as Tokyo). o Clearly took or expanded territories of vassals (diamyo) as needed o Tokugawa shogunate 200 yrs o Feudalism + central monarchy. o Peasants paid taxes to daimyo who were supported by samurai o Tokugawa owned ¼ but didn’t rule directly. o Didn’t personally tax whole population. o *Japan remained politically and economically decentralized o kept diamyo from making allies by requiring that they live in Edo every other year – families in Edo as hostages – that was expensive for diamyo. o This process transformed many diamyo from warrior to courtier o*Tokugawa helped b/c strong central gov’t meant stability 200 yrs o *kept trade restrictions and limited foreigners.

    11. Japanese Shogunate Foreign Control o mid 1500s Portuguese in Japan. Brought o Christianity - Jesuits o Muskets – anti Samurai lifestyle o Tokugawa shoguns conclude Christianity was threat – weaken their authority o Evicted Portuguese o *island nation meant better able to achieve isolation than China

    12. Japanese Shogunate Change in Japan o Like China – internal economic changes – production grew and specialized o *US Pres Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perrysteamed into Tokyo bay in 1853 – amazing technology o negotiated 1854 – Treaty of Kanagawa. 2 ports to US for food, shelter o signed similar treaties with GB, Fr etc o foreigners estb. consulates – diplomatic offices o 1858 – allow ministers, diplomats, extraterritoriality o *1860 civil war in Japan…anti Tokuguawa forces calling for change. o New emperor – Meiji Rule

    13. Ottoman Empire Add to your map

    14. Ottoman Empire 1396 1st Sultanate Elite Army o Janissaries– young captured men, Christian slaves. Trained as Sultans personal guard. Elite. Became powerful in political arena. Elite slave troops Timur challenges the Ottomans o Turkko-Mongol leader Timur interrupted Ottoman expansion invaded 1402 o Born Uzbekistan, claim descent from Genghis Khan o Timur dies o Civil war among Ottomans as to who next Sultan oMurad II took over and began to expand o Mehmed II Took Constantinople 1453 – renamed Istanbul o Suleyman greatest Sultan. 1520-1566. The Magnificent. Lawgiver. o Lawgiver o Conquered Hungary 1526 o Nearly took Vienna o Vienna limit but rule most of eastern Europe, western Asia, and Northern Africa

    15. Ottoman Empire Ottoman Gov’t and Society oSultans – o Grand viziers. second in command to the sultan o Two groups o Sultans o Peasants known as reaya (protected flock) o Liquid status rank o Meritocracy

    16. Ottoman Empire Decline o Suleyman the Magnficent died 1566. o Navy and army strong but defeats at hands of Europeans o Phillip II 1571 navy against Ottomans o Loss control of profitable silk and spice trade o Europeans open water trade routes o Corruption – internal bureaucratic struggles o French invaded Egypt 1798 (Napoleon) an Ottoman possession o End 1923 when Turkey estb itself as a republic

    17. The Safavid Empire Add the Ottoman and the Safavid Empire to your map

    18. Safavid Empire is in what today is Iran

    19. The Mughal Empire Add the Mughal Empire to your map

    20. The Mughal Empire ♣1300 – 1500 India controlled by Turkish Muslims. Challenge by Rajputs– Indian warrior princes ♣This internal struggle drew attention of neighbors. ♣Attack by Babur the Tiger – descendent of Mongol leader Timur o He focused on India ♣1526 attacked Sultanate of Delhi. ♣Becomes core of Mughal Empire

    21. The Mughal Empire Ruler Akbar ♣1556-1603. ♣Married Rajput princess ♣Gave other Rajputs gov’t positions ♣Used force. ♣Control most of N India ♣Intro improved tax syst – done on 10 yr average of crop production- more equitable ♣ Religious Policy o Tolerant o Repealed non muslim tax o New creed blend elements of Hindu, Islam, Jainism, Christianity

    22. The Mughal Empire ♣ Height of Empire oShah Jahan 1628-1658 oTaj Mahal at Agra and Hall of Private Audience. – expensive

    23. The Mughal Empire oMystic Nanak united – Sikh faith ♣Devotion to one God ♣Lack of idols ♣Less rigid social sys ♣Conflicted with Hindu beliefs ♣1600s Sikhs become militant *enemies of Mughal Empire and Muslims