The End Of The War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The End Of The War

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  1. The End Of The War

  2. Election of Nixon • By the time of 1968 election opposition to the war was at its highest • Nixon claims to have a secret way to end the war • Robert Kennedy was assassinated • Because of all this Nixon wins the election

  3. Nixon’s Approach • Vietnamization • Switching U.S. troops with South Vietnamese troops (Nixon’s plan) • From 1968 to 1972 U.S. troops shrank from 543,000 to 39,000 • Nixon still wants to win the war • He continues bombing • Spreads the war into Cambodia • These actions renew protests at home

  4. U.S. Withdraws • During the election of 1972 Nixon orders the most intense bombings of the war • Bombed Hanoi, the capital of N. Vietnam • Mined the harbors in N. Vietnam • 1973 the cease fire is signed between U.S. and N. Vietnam • The civil war continues for two more years • 1975 N. Vietnam takes over Saigon finishing the war • U.S. pulls out of Vietnam for good

  5. The Legacy Of The War • Human casualties • Over 58,000 Americans were killed • 300,000 were wounded • U.S. loses its first war • Change in U.S. foreign policy • We will send money and supplies • We will no longer fight another country’s war • War Powers Act of 1973 – Gave Congress the right to either approve or disapprove the President sending troops abroad and bringing them home

  6. Why Was Vietnam A Failure

  7. Why We Failed • Military leaders over-estimate our role in the war • Thought no one could defeat the U.S. military • They don’t think that the Vietnamese are supplied or trained well • Enemy is better than we think • They are used to fighting (they been fighting for 20 years) • They know the land better • They are better supplied than we thought • Guerrilla warfare • We don’t know our enemy

  8. Why We Failed • Military blames LBJ • LBJ can not do what is needed to win the war because of political restraints • Media is blamed for turning public opinion against the war • The media supported the war between 1964-68 • The media should have censored the war more • The casualties being seen on TV was what took away public support

  9. Why Was Vietnam Unpopular?

  10. The Draft • Any male 18 years or older had to register • They were picked by lottery • Deferments • College - if a person was attending college • Married with children • Medical reasons • 25,000 new draftees each month • Questions of discrimination in the draft • Blacks are 11% of the pop. But they were 16% of the people drafted and they made up 30% of the combat troops

  11. Psychological Effects On Soldiers • Problems coping when they were home • Post-Traumatic Stress disorder • Income – Their average income was $2,740 less than normal • Divorce – They were four times more likely to be divorced • Increase in smoking, drug and alcoholism • More than 16% of all Vets experience alcohol problems • More likely to use sleeping pills and tranquilizers

  12. Physical Effects • Wounds suffered during war • Agent Orange causes cancer and many other diseases

  13. Public Disapproval • Conscientious objectors – people that have moral/religious beliefs that prevent them from fighting in the war • My Lai Massacre and Tet offensive (1968) increases public disapproval

  14. Public Disapproval • Student protests • Kent State University (1970) • Four students were killed by national guardsmen at an antiwar protest • Jackson State (1970) • Two students killed, 11 wounded by police at a antiwar demonstration • People are angered about the war being spread into Cambodia • Pentagon Papers are published *By 1970, more Americans favor ending the U.S. involvement in the war than staying involved