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Test 4 – Sample Questions
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  1. Test 4 – Sample Questions Caution: This is NOT a review. You are still responsible for going over your notes, power points, readings, and chapters.

  2. Disease Parasite Pathogen Infection Invasiveness Virulence Infectivity Septicemia Pathology Etiology Pathogenesis Host Normal Microbiota Transient Microbiota Symbiosis Mutualism Define

  3. Commensalism Parasitism Microbial Antagonism Opportunistic Symptom Sign Syndrome Communicable Contagious Noncontagious Incidence Prevalence Sporadic Endemic Epidemic Pandemic Acute Chronic Define

  4. Subacute Latent Herd Immunity EID RID Local Infection Systemic Infection Focal Infection Secondary Infection Subclinical Infection Reservoir Zoonoses Direct Transmission Indirect Transmission Fomite Droplet Transmission Transmission by a Medium Define

  5. Airborne Transmission Vector Vehicle Biological Transmission Mechanical Transmission Vertical Transmission Horizontal Transmission Portals of Exit Nosocomial Infection Compromised Host Chain of Transmission Predisposing Factor Incubation Period Define

  6. Prodromal Period Period of Illness Period of Decline Period of Convalescence Epidemiology Descriptive Epidemiology Analytical Epidemiology Toxins Toxemia Toxigenicity Experimental Epidemiology MMWR Pathogenicity Portal of Entry Virulence LD50 ID50 Leukocidins Hemolysins Define

  7. Exotoxins Antitoxins Cytotoxins Neurotoxins Enterotoxins Endotoxins Cytopathic Effects Cytocidal Effects Resistance Nonsusceptibility Nonspecific Resistance Specific Resistance Sebum Leukocyte Erythrocyte Define

  8. Inflammation Vasodilation Margination Emigration Pus Stoma Parenchyma Fever Interferons Complement System Differential WBC Count Innate Resistance Serology Immunity Antigen Antibody Acquired Immunity Define

  9. Naturally Acquired Active Immunity Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity Artificially Acquired Active Immunity Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity Apoptosis Antibody Titer Humoral Immunity Cell Mediated Immunity T-Cell B-Cell IgG IgM IgA IgD IgE Define

  10. Vaccine Attenuated Whole-Agent Vaccines Inactivated Whole-Agent Vaccines Toxoids Subunit Vaccines Conjugated Vaccines Nucleic Acid Vaccines or DNA Vaccines Precipitation Reactions Agglutination Reactions Neutralization Reactions Complement Fixation ELISA Fluorescent-Antibody Technique Define

  11. Is the Uterus Usually germ free?Who Was David Vetter?What was unusual about him?What disease did he have?How did he die?

  12. How do different body regions compare in amounts of flora?What is the mechanism by which microbial antagonism occurs?

  13. Given a situation, be able to tell what type of relationship is shown. Example: ParasitismKnow where in the body we don’t usually have microbiota.Name an opportunistic microorganism.

  14. Cooperation can increase the ____ or a microorganism.List Koch’s PostulatesList the exceptions to Koch’s Postulates

  15. Given a sign or symptom, be able to tell which it is.Given a situation, be able to tell if it shows incidence or prevalence.Give an example of a latent disease.

  16. What is herd immunity? Why do we strive for it?Name EIDs.What causes EIDs?Name RIDs.

  17. How is a zoonosis transmitted?Name common portals of exit.Know the most frequent nosocomial infections for adults and infants.

  18. Our body has natural defenses. What weakens their effectiveness?Now how we can control nosocomial infections.Know predisposing factors for disease

  19. Given a situation, be able to tell what type of epidemiology is shown.Be able to work a risk ratio.Who was John Snow? What did he do?

  20. Who is the Main Source of Epidemiological Information in the United States?What is the leading causes of Death in the United States for 1-34 year olds?

  21. What is the leading cause of death in Oklahoma?How do capsules aid a bacterium in colonizing a host?What do M-proteins do?

  22. How is a fibrin clot protective?What do kinases do?What is direct damage?What do we see when endotoxins are released?

  23. How do viruses avoid a host immune response?List some cytopathic effects.Infections with Fungi, Protozoa, Helminthes, and Algae result in _______ due to _________.

  24. What composes our first line of defense?What composes our second line of defense?Where are the best places for microbes to grow?

  25. How are we protected by theskinlachrymal apparatussalivary glandsmucusflow of urinesebumperspirationgastric juice in stomach

  26. Where do we find lysozyme?Know the steps of phagocytosis in order.Know which white blood cells we see most often and least often in a normal blood smear.

  27. Know when we see an increase in each type of WBC.What indicates a rising fever?How do inflammation an a fever differ?What gland controls your body temperature?

  28. How should we treat a fever?What is the complement system?

  29. What things affect individual resistance?What is a gel electrophoresis used for?Which lymphocytes produce antibodies?

  30. Which type of immunity protects us against extracellular pathogens?Which type of immunity protects us against intracellular pathogens?

  31. Name some childhood vaccinations.

  32. Name a free federal program to give vaccinations to children.What type of vaccine will provide lifelong immunity.What is used to inactivate the organism in an Inactivated Whole-Agent Vaccine?

  33. What type of vaccine requires boosters. Name one.What type of vaccine is the majority of our flu vaccines?Describe a Dream Vaccine.

  34. Diagnostic Immunology is a series of tests designed to check for interactions between________