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Processes of Evolution & Genetics. Part 1. Learning Objectives: Part 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the historical context in which the theory of evolution was originally formed.

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learning objectives part 1
Learning Objectives: Part 1
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the historical context in which the theory of evolution was originally formed.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the theory of evolution and the mechanisms of evolution (especially natural selection)
    • Illustrate this understanding through accurate examples
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanisms that underpin inheritance
    • Describe the link between meiosis and Mendelian genetics
    • Explain how Mendelian inheritance patterns can be modified by linkage & sex chromosomes
what is evolution
What is Evolution?
  • Evolution
    • __________________
    • More specifically:
      • _________________________________
      • What does this definition imply?
        • Populations ___________, not _____________
    • It is __________
      • What does this mean?
what is evolution1
What is Evolution?
  • Evidence that supports the theory of evolution
    • ___________
    • ________________

____________

___________

history of evolutionary thought
History of Evolutionary Thought

Pre-Darwinian Views

  • ___________
    • _____________________
  • Earth is ___________
  • _________________(4th century)
    • _________________of organisms from _________
    • _____________________ – closer to ________, greater excellence
history of evolutionary thought1
History of Evolutionary Thought
  • Precursors to the Theory of Evolution
    • 5 scholars & their contributions
history of evolutionary thought2
History of Evolutionary Thought

Charles Lyell (1797-1875)

  • __________________
  • ___________________
    • Natural processes _________________________ ________________________________________
      • Processes are _________________
      • Used to reconstruct ____________________
history of evolutionary thought3
History of Evolutionary Thought

Georges Cuvier

  • _______________
    • How does this idea compare to the concept of stasis?
  • __________________
    • ___________event(s) explain
      • ____________________
      • ____________________
      • 1796 paper: Mammoth Remains
history of evolutionary thought4
History of Evolutionary Thought

Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)

  • Developed __________________
    • Species, genus, class, order, kingdom
    • Binomial Nomenclature
      • Genus, species
      • Example: ___________
history of evolutionary thought5
History of Evolutionary Thought

Thomas Malthus (1776-1834)

  • “An Essay on the Principles of Population”
    • _____________________________
  • Inspired Darwin
    • ____________________________ ______________________________
history of evolutionary thought6
History of Evolutionary Thought

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)

  • Inheritance of __________________
    • ______________________________
    • Central idea: When life forms reproduce, _____ ______________________________________
      • Changed in form over time for _________________
    • Now know: Mechanism is _____________
      • Offspring _________________________
development of natural selection
Development of Natural Selection

Charles Darwin

  • Using Mathus’ essay and Lyell’s uniformitarian view, combined with his own observations on biological variation and sexual reproduction, _______________
    • _________________
    • _________________
    • _________________
    • _________________
development of natural selection1
Development of Natural Selection

Charles Darwin

  • _______________________
    • Natural selection explains _________________
    • Shifts in traits in response to ___________________
  • Descent ___________________
    • Similar traits indicate _________________
    • ______________________
  • ________________________
    • Affects individual’s _____________________________
    • Transmitted ___________________________________
development of natural selection2
Development of Natural Selection

Key Points to Natural Selection

  • _________________________
    • Traits are ___________________to the next generation
    • Over ______________, successful ______________
      • Later generations ____________________________
  • All species can ____________________________
development of natural selection3
Development of Natural Selection

Key Points to Natural Selection

  • Competition for ___________ (___________)
    • Individuals with ________________________ ______________________________________
  • _________________________________
      • Determines whether a _____________________
  • ________________________
development of natural selection4
Development of Natural Selection

____________________acts on __________ ________, but it is the _____________that they are a part of that actually ___________.

describing traits
Describing Traits
  • Aptation
  • Adaptation
  • Exaptation
natural selection in action
Natural Selection in Action

Panda’s thumb

  • Lamarckian explanation
        • ____________________
  • Darwinian explanation
    • _____________________
      • _____________________________
      • Ability to ________________________________
  • “The panda's "thumb" is not, __________________. It is constructed from a bone called the radial sesamoid, normally a small component of the wrist,” (Gould, 1980)
early thoughts on heredity
Early Thoughts on Heredity
  • Ancient Greek Influence
    • Predominant belief  characteristic of offspring resulted from the blending of parental traits
    • _______________________________
  • How hereditary information was transmitted was unknown until the late 19th and early 20th century
mendel s experiments
Mendel’s Experiments

Mendelian Trait: _______________________

dominance and recessiveness
Dominance and Recessiveness
  • Dominant Trait: governed by an ____________ _____________________
    • Dominant alleles can _____________________
  • Recessive Trait: a trait ___________________
  • What’s an allele?
    • _________________________________________
dominance and recessiveness1
Dominance and Recessiveness
  • How to recognize?
    • Uppercase letters refer to dominant alleles (i.e. T)
    • Lowercase letters refer to recessive alleles (i.e. t)
    • These symbols are used to represent the genotype
    • Genotype: __________________________
    • Phenotype: ____________________________
mendel s experiments1
Mendel’s Experiments

What happened when Mendel crossed the parent generations?

  • Parent (TT) (tall) x Parent (tt) (short)
  • Resulting F1 generation
    • __________
      • Genotype: ________
      • Phenotype: _______
mendel s experiments2
Mendel’s Experiments

What happened when Mendel crossed F1 hybrids?

  • Expression that was absent from F1 reappeared
  • Resulting F2 generation:
    • Genotype: ____________
    • Phenotype: ___________
terms to know
Terms to Know
  • Homozygous: ______________________________
  • Example: Parent Generation
    • All tall plants were homozygous for the dominant allele (tall) = TT
    • All short plants were homozygous for the recessive allele (short) = tt
terms to know1
Terms to Know
  • Heterozygous: _______________________________
  • Example: F1 Generation
    • Offspring of F1 generation were Tt had inherited one allele from each parent plant
    • Possessing two different alleles at the same locus
mendel s principles of inheritance
Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance

1. Principle of Segregation

  • Genes ___________ (i.e. RR, or Rr, or rr)
  • During _____________________________
  • During fertilization, the genes are reunited and the ______________________________
  • Thus, ____________________________
mendel s principles of inheritance1
Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance

2. Principle of Independent Assortment

  • Distribution of _________________________ ___________________________________
  • ______________________________________
mendelian inheritance in humans
Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
  • Mendelian traits (or discrete/simple traits)
  • Describes a characteristic influenced only at one locus
  • Examples:
    • 1.
    • 2.
    • 3.
    • 4.
    • 5.