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Grays Harbor. Headwaters originate from Olympic and Cascade mountains Rainfall driven Estuary comprised of low gradient mudflats 37 mi 2 at MLLW 90 mi 2 at MHHW Drainage area = 2,600 mi 2 1,391 streams with 3,353 linear stream miles Major Tributaries Humptulips River Hoquiam River

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grays harbor
Grays Harbor

Headwaters originate from Olympic and Cascade mountains

Rainfall driven

Estuary comprised of low gradient mudflats

37 mi2 at MLLW

90 mi2 at MHHW

Drainage area = 2,600 mi2

1,391 streams with 3,353 linear stream miles

Major Tributaries

Humptulips River

Hoquiam River

Wishkah River

Chehalis River

Wynoochee River

Satsop River

Black River

Newaukum River

Skookumchuck River

willapa bay
Willapa Bay

Headwaters originate from Willapa Hills, with exception of North River

Rainfall driven

Estuary comprised of low gradient mudflats

Second largest estuary on West Coast

174 mi2 at MLLW

260 mi2 at MHHW

Drainage area = 720 mi2

754 streams with 1,470 linear stream miles

Major Tributaries

Cedar River

North River

Willapa River

Niawiakum River

Palix River

Nemah River

Naselle River

Bear River

key environmental factors
Key Environmental Factors
  • Grays Harbor
    • Weeks 40-48 (October – November)
    • Temperature (oC)
      • October: =12.5, min=9.7, max=15.6
      • November: =9.5, min=5.4, max=11.8
    • Salinity (psu)
      • October: =19.5, min=0.2, max=29.1
      • November: =16.4, min=0.02, max=28.7
key environmental factors1
Key Environmental Factors
  • Willapa Bay
    • Temperature (oC)
      • Mid-August through mid- September
        • August 15th – 31st: =18.0, min=11.0 max=21.0
        • September 1st-15th: =17.0, min=7.5 max=20.6
      • Mid-September through end of October
        • September 16th -31st: =16.5, min=11.2 max=20.1
        • October 1st-31st: =13.2, min=10.1 max=16.9
    • Salinity (psu)
      • Mid-August through mid- September
        • August 15th – 31st: =28.0, min=2.8 max=32.7
        • September 1st-15th: =28.3, min=7.5 max=32.3
      • Mid-September through end of October
        • September 16th -31st: =28.0, min=7.9 max=32.7
        • October 1st-31st: =26.6, min=0.9 max=32.4
slide5

Current rates used

    • Chinook
      • Gill net: 45% From Ashbrook et al 2004
      • Tangle net: 25% From TAC (14.7%), with buffer
    • Coho
      • Gill net: 45% - From Chinook
2013 regulations
2013 Regulations
  • Grays Harbor
    • 2A/2D: 45 min soak, recovery box required, release unmarked Chinook
      • 1 day 4.25” tangle net
      • 9 days 5-6.5” gill net
    • 2C:
      • 4 days 5-8.5” gill net
2013 regulations1
2013 Regulations
  • Willapa Bay
    • Aug. 12 – Sept. 13:
      • 21 days 5-9” gill net
      • Release wild Chinook, 45 minute soak, recovery box required
    • Sept. 15 – Sept. 22:
      • 8 days 5-6” gill net
      • Release wild Chinook, 45 minute soak, recovery box required
    • Sept. 23 – Oct. 31
      • 20 days 5-6.5” gill net
      • Release wild Chinook, 45 minute soak, recovery box required
    • November 6 – 20
      • 15 days 5-6.5” or 9” minimum gill net
slide10

Grays Harbor, 6.5” Gill Net, Oct-Nov

    • Columbia River, 2001 & 2002, Long Term Mortality = 45%
    • Effect on Mortality: Grays Harbor versus Columbia
      • Species:
        • Chinook: Lower (Fall vs. Spring– maturation)
        • Chum:
      • Temp: No significant difference (9.5-12.5oC vs. 9oC)
      • Salinity: Higher (estuary transition zone vs. river)
      • Mesh: No significant difference (6.5” vs 5.5-8”)
      • Migration Duration: Lower (30d versus 180d)
      • Soak Time: Lower (23min vs. 39min)
        • 45 minutes by regulation, 2C no maximum soak time
      • Recapture: No significant difference?, except 2A Higher (confined river vs. large open river)
slide11

Grays Harbor, 6.5” Gill Net, Oct-Nov

    • Willapa Bay, 2000, Immediate Mortality = 20.5%
    • Effect on Mortality: Grays Harbor versus Willapa Bay
      • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Lower (9.5-12.5oC vs.13.7oC)
      • Salinity: Higher? (20 ppt vs. 28 ppt)
      • Mesh: No significant difference (6.5” vs 7.25”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: Lower (23 min vs. 32min)
      • Recapture: No significant difference
    • Coho also examined, Immediate mortality = 24.5%
slide12

Grays Harbor, 6.5” Gill Net, Oct-Nov

    • Willapa Bay, 2001, Immediate Mortality = 12.8%
    • Effect on Mortality: Grays Harbor versus Willapa Bay
      • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Lower (9.5-12.5oC vs.13.7oC)
      • Salinity: Higher? (20 ppt vs. 28 ppt)
      • Mesh: No significant difference (5.75” vs 5.75”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: No significant difference (23min vs. 28min)
      • Recapture: No significant difference
slide13

Grays Harbor, 6.5” Gill Net, Oct-Nov

    • Willapa Bay, 2003, Immediate Mortality = 15%
    • Effect on Mortality: Grays Harbor versus Willapa Bay
      • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Lower (9.5-12.5oC vs.~15.5oC)
      • Salinity: Higher? (20 ppt vs. 28 ppt)
      • Mesh: No significant difference (5.75” vs 5.75”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: Higher (23min vs. 13min)
      • Recapture: No significant difference
    • Also examined coho, Immediate Mortality = 10.9%
slide15

Grays Harbor, 4.25” Tangle Net, Oct-Nov

    • Columbia River, 2003, Long Term Mortality = 15.6%
      • Revised by TAC to 14.7%
    • Effect on Mortality: Grays Harbor versus Columbia
      • Species:
        • Chinook: Lower (Fall Chinook vs. Spring Chinook – maturation)
        • Chum:
      • Temp: No significant difference (9.5-12.5oC vs. 9oC)
      • Salinity: Higher (estuary transition zone vs. river)
      • Mesh: No significant difference (4.25” vs 4.25-4.5”)
      • Migration Duration: Lower (30d versus 180d)
      • Soak Time: Higher (45min vs. 34min)
      • Recapture: No significant difference?, except 2A Higher (confined river vs. large open river)
slide16

Grays Harbor, 4.25” Tangle Net, Oct-Nov

    • Willapa Bay, 2000 & 2001, Immediate Mortality = 5.9 % (8.1 & 3.7)
    • Effect on Mortality: Grays Harbor versus Willapa Bay
      • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Lower (9.5-12.5oC vs.~13.5oC)
      • Salinity: Higher? (20 ppt vs. 28 ppt)
      • Mesh: Higher (4.25” vs 3.5”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: Lower (23min vs. 30min)
        • 45 min by regulation
      • Recapture: No significant difference
    • Coho also examined in 2001, Immediate Mortality = 19.9%
slide17

Grays Harbor, 4.25” Tangle Net, Oct-Nov

    • Willapa Bay, 2003, Immediate Mortality = 3.7 %
    • Effect on Mortality: Grays Harbor versus Willapa Bay
      • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Lower (9.5-12.5oC vs.~13.5oC)
      • Salinity: Higher? (20 ppt vs. 28 ppt)
      • Mesh: Higher (4.25” vs 3.5”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: Higher (23min vs. 14min)
        • 45 min by regulation
      • Recapture: No significant difference
    • Coho also examined in 2001, Immediate Mortality = 11.3%
slide19

Willapa Bay, 9” Gill Net, Aug 16 – Sept. 15

    • Columbia River, 2001 & 2002, Long Term Mortality = 45%
    • Effect on Mortality: Willapa Bay versus Columbia River
      • Species:
        • Chinook: Lower (Fall Chinook vs. Spring Chinook – maturation)
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Higher (17-18oC vs. 9oC)
      • Salinity: Higher (estuary transition zone vs. river)
      • Mesh: Higher (9” vs 5.5-8”)
      • Migration Duration: Lower (30d versus 180d)
      • Soak Time: Lower (30min vs. 39min)
        • 45 min by regulation except late November
      • Recapture: No significant difference?, except 2U Higher (confined river vs. large open river)
slide20

Willapa Bay, 9” Gill Net, Aug 16 – Sept. 15

    • Willapa Bay, 2000, Immediate Mortality = 20.5%
    • Effect on Mortality: Current versus 2000
      • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Higher (17-18oC vs.13.7oC)
      • Salinity: No significant difference
      • Mesh: Higher (9” vs 7.25”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference
      • Soak Time: No significant difference(30min vs. 32min)
        • 45 min by regulation except late November
      • Recapture: No significant difference
    • Coho also examined, Immediate mortality = 24.5%
slide21

Willapa Bay, 9” Gill Net, Aug 16 – Sept. 15

    • Willapa Bay, 2001, Immediate Mortality = 12.8%
    • Effect on Mortality: Current versus 2001
      • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Higher (17-18oC vs.13oC)
      • Salinity: Salinity: No significant difference
      • Mesh: Higher (9” vs 5.75”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: No significant difference (30min vs. 28min)
        • 45 min by regulation except late November
      • Recapture: No significant difference
slide22

Willapa Bay, 9” Gill Net, Aug 16 – Sept. 15

    • Willapa Bay, 2003, Immediate Mortality = 15%
    • Effect on Mortality: Current versus 2003
      • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Higher (17-18oC vs.~15.5oC)
      • Salinity: No significant difference
      • Mesh: No significant difference (6.5” vs 5.75”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: Higher (30min vs. 13min)
        • 45 min by regulation except late November
      • Recapture: No significant difference
    • Also examined coho, Immediate Mortality = 10.9% (only time)
slide24

Willapa Bay, 6.5” Tangle Net, Sept. 16 – Oct. 31

    • Columbia River, 2003, Long Term Mortality = 15.6%
      • Revised by TAC to 13.7%
    • Effect on Mortality: Willapa Bay versus Columbia
      • Species:
        • Chinook: Lower (Fall Chinook vs. Spring Chinook – maturation)
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Higher (13.2-16.5oC vs. 9oC)
      • Salinity: Higher (estuary transition zone vs. river)
      • Mesh: Higher (6.5” vs 4.25-4.5”)
      • Migration Duration: Lower (30d versus 180d)
      • Soak Time: No significant difference (30min vs. 34min)
        • 45 minutes by regulation except late November
      • Recapture: No significant difference?, except 2U Higher (confined river vs. large open river)
slide25

Willapa Bay, 6.5” Tangle Net, Sept. 16 – Oct. 31

    • Willapa Bay, 2000 & 2001, Immediate Mortality = 5.9% (8.1 & 3.7)
    • Effect on Mortality: Current versus 2000 & 2001
    • Species:
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum:
      • Temp: Higher (13.2-16.5oC vs. ~13.5oC)
      • Salinity: No significant difference
      • Mesh: Higher (6.5” vs 3.5”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: No significant difference(30min vs. 30min)
        • 45 min by regulation except late November
      • Recapture: No significant difference
    • Coho also examined in 2001, Immediate Mortality = 19.9%
slide26

Willapa Bay, 6.5” Tangle Net, Sept. 16 – Oct. 31

    • Willapa Bay, 2003, Immediate Mortality = 3.7 %
    • Effect on Mortality: Current versus 2003
        • Chinook: No significant difference
        • Chum :
      • Temp: Higher(13.2-16.5oC vs.~13.5oC)
      • Salinity : No significant difference
      • Mesh: Higher (6.5” vs 3.5”)
      • Migration Duration: No significant difference (30d versus 30d)
      • Soak Time: Higher (30min vs. 14min)
        • 45 min by regulation except late November
      • Recapture: No significant difference
    • Coho also examined in 2001, Immediate Mortality = 11.3%
other miscelleneous data
Other Miscelleneous Data
  • Baranski 1980: Reports higher mortality rates for Skagit River Chinook caught in lower river (98%) versus upper river 1 month later (<5%)
  • Zajec: Reports immediate mortality rates for Chum in Quilcene Bay of 26% and 10%
  • Baker et al. 2013: found evidence for delayed or inhibited maturation in fish with disentanglement injuries
immediate versus long term
Immediate versus Long Term
  • Only Studies are Columbia River
    • Ratio is 7X to 65X
    • Is 7X the minimum value?
  • Mortality versus time
    • What is shape of function?
    • Hooking mortality, most mortality is within first few days