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ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES. Food Chemistry. OBJECTIVES. Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures. Compare homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. Define solutions. Distinguish between a solute and solvent. Recognize water as a universal solvent.

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objectives
OBJECTIVES
  • Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures.
  • Compare homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
  • Define solutions.
  • Distinguish between a solute and solvent.
  • Recognize water as a universal solvent.
  • Understand the processes of solubility and saturation.
overview
Overview

Matter

  • Anything that has mass and takes up space.

Physical Properties

  • A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the substance
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas

Chemical Properties

  • The ability of a substance to react with other substances
pure substances
Pure substances
  • Made of only one kind of material and has definite properties

Elements

  • Sodium, Carbon, Iron

Compounds

  • Table salt, water, sugar
mixtures
Mixtures
  • A combination of two or more substances in which each substance keeps at least some of its original properties.
  • Physically blended, not chemically.

Homogeneous Mixtures

Heterogeneous Mixtures

Solutions

Colloids

homogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures
  • The same in every part of a given sample.

Examples: salt water, milk, air, cola

Another name for a homogeneous mixture:

Solution – one substance is dissolved in another

Solution

Solute

Solvent

solute vs solvent
Solute vs. solvent
  • The substance that is dissolved
    • Sugar
    • Salt
  • The substance that dissolves another substance
    • Water

Water is recognized as a universal solvent.

This can be a problem with vitamins and minerals dissolving in cooking water.

SOLUTE

SOLVENT

heterogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • Individual substances are dissimilar and can be recognized by sight.

This is also known as “Immiscible”

Examples: salad, potato soup, Italian dressing

saturated vs unsaturated solutions
Saturated vs. Unsaturated solutions

Unsaturated Solution:

  • A solution that contains less solute than can be dissolved in it at a given temperature.

Saturated Solution:

  • A solution that contains all the solute that can be dissolved at a given temperature.
solubility
solubility
  • The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature.
  • The solubility of most solids dissolved in a liquid increases as the temperature increases.

Example: Sugar dissolves faster in boiling water.

  • The solubility of gas decreases as the temperature increases.

Example: A warm can of soda will go flat faster than a cold can of soda.

solute phase changes
Solute & phase changes
  • The amount of solute in a solution affects the temperature at which the solution boils or freezes.
  • The more solute present in a solution, the higher the boiling point and the lower the freezing point.

Example: Ice cream is still soft in the freezer because of the sugar dissolved in the water.

identify the mixtures
Identify the mixtures

Your table now has 4 glasses. Add 4 different solutions to the glasses and identify the type of mixture as homogeneous or heterogeneous.

Glass # 1 – Place 1 drop of food coloring in your glass of water and stir.

Glass # 2 – Add ¼ cup oil to the water.

Glass # 3 – Add ¼ cup vinegar the water.

Glass # 4 – Add ¼ cup vinegar to the oil.

solubility lab
Solubility Lab
  • Make Iced Tea using both cold and hot water.
  • Compare the flavors and answer the questions to review the scientific theme of the week.