Richard rogers. Nishith Singh, b arch (4th yr.). About. Born 23 july 1933 in Florence,Italy. Career. Attended the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, before graduating from Yale School of Architecture in 1962.
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Nishith Singh, b arch (4th yr.)
Bussiness nature: Insurance
Richard Rogers Partnership
Ove Arup & Partners
Ove Arup & Partners
Monk Dunstone Mahon & Sears
Friederich Wagner of Liccttehnische Planung
Sandy Brown Associates
The Lloyds Building, consisting of twelve stories to the north, stepping down to six stories to the south, was a replacement for the previous buildings which Lloyds of London occupied but found to be too small for its continued growth.
Presently, the Lloyds Building with its 52,200 square metres gross area (37,500 square metres net area) is a 66 percent increase over the Cooper buildings it replaced. "The Room" takes all the area of the ground floor and extends into the upper second, third, and fourth floors. Office spaces take up the remaining upper floors.
The Room –required large open adaptive space
Dating back to the 17th century, Lloyds of London has today transformed itself into a modern market place operating on the principles of a traditional market. Composed of a society of underwriters, each having their individual stall in the Lloyd's market, the efficiency and success of Lloyd's depends on the interaction between individuals and in the contact gained from working in a large open space, an open market, called "The Room".
Expansion –continue growth leads to need of expansion and flexible structural and services layout
The Corporation of Lloyds of London had already moved several times in attempt to suit its continued growth before acquiring the site on Leadenhall Street in the 1920’s. During the World War II, German bombs flattened the adjacent sites; however, the Cooper building in which Lloyds resided survived. In 1950, Lloyds, foreseeing a further need for expansion bought the surrounding sites and began to build the "new" Lloyds. This new building, completed in 1958, was linked to the 1928 building by a 38-foot bridge spanning over Lime Street.
Continued growth of Lloyds quickly led them to reevaluate their situation and again look for ways to expand. By the 1960s and 1970s, the 1958 building was already too small and Lloyds now began to look at 1928 building as a possibility in meeting their expansionist ideals. The 1928 building ultimately became their solution. Although listed (grade II) by the government, it was allowed by the City to be demolished in 1981 in place of the current Lloyds Building, which was completed in 1986.
The Lloyds Building, consisting of twelve stories to the north, stepping down to six stories to the south, sunlight penetration thus utilized.
the incorporation of the atrium
The atrium was a key feature in the reduction of the loads coming from lighting. The atrium increases in volume and surface area as it progresses toward the south.
The office levels increase as the progress northward allowing a large surface area for diffused light coming from the north.
A significant amount of natural lighting reaching down into "The Room" demonstrates the success in the design of the atrium.
Furthermore, every location in the building is located within 7 meters from a natural source of light.
the served and servant
It was Kahn’s notion of ‘served’ and ‘servant’ spaces inspired Rogers. In the case of Llyods, servant spaces concentrate in towers.
Servant towers with incorporation of raised flooring system and ceiling viod
Servant towers with incorporation of raised flooring system and ceiling void
The services towers, 3 of them principally for fire fighting and escape.
The other 3 for lifts, lavatories and risers, are the visual expression of the Kahnian doctrine of ‘served and servant spaces’
Main services running vertically down the towersTower – vertical planning
The towers form a flexible framework for the ventilation plant, lifts, service risers and lavatories (all the 33 lavatory units were manufactured and fitted out) attached to them.
Four towers carry major plant-rooms, with mains services running vertically down the towers and connected into each level of the building.
The largest services duct contained the air-conditioning, with lesser duct for water, drains, power and electronics
service risers with ducts for water, drains, power and electronics running vertically down the towers and connected into each level of the building
Access and escape routes were provided by means of lifts and staircases
The largest services duct contained the air-conditioning running vertically down the towers and connected into each level of the building.Tower – detailed layout
Typical detailed layout services tower
ALUZINC duct extracting air through light fittings
The extracted air is passed to the perimeter of the building and forced through the triple-layered exterior glazing – ensuring an almost zero heat loss from the offices during the winter and reducing heat gain in summer.
stale air is extracted from above through the multi-function luminaries
Conditioned air is distributed through a sub-floor plenum into the offices
Extracted ductworksAir cond. & heat cycle1
Clear double glazed window operable at office
The operable window allows individuals the ability to "acquire" fresh air if the feel it necessary. The placement of the window encourages individuals to work while sitting rather than standing since that is where the views are held. It also allows interior light to be reflected back into the interior during the night and diffuses direct sunlight during the day. The need to take mechanical systems into careful consideration when designing energy conscious builidings is made evident when one compares the the overall space that they consume in a building in relation to the human being
The heat cycle
Heat from the return air is collected in the basement sprinkler tanks and re-used. The internal concrete soffits and slabs are ‘heat sinks’, absorbing heat during occupation and being cooled off overnight using naturally chilled night air.
This allow cooling to follow a 24-hour cycle and reduces the peak cooling requirement.
The basic form of the building is that of a large atrium, surmounted by steel and glass arched roof, surrounded by galleries (12levels of them on the north side) which contain the bulk of the underwriting space and a variable a mount of lettable space, depending on the changing accommodation need of the Llyods market itself.
The floors were constructed on reinforced concrete columns on a 10.8x18metre grid. The load is transferred between the columns and the floor beams by means of a pre-casted bracket. Pre-cast ‘yokes’ cast into inverted U-beam transmit the loads of the floor grid to the perimeter columns via the brackets.
The great columns, both the exterior of the building and within the atrium, stand proud of the cladding, increasing the highly articulated ‘Gothic’ effects of Llyods. External cross-braces are actually made of steel tube concrete grid open to view.
Design of the atrium roof
A lightweight contrast to the concrete superstructure of the building
Columns, Beams and Floors
The floors were constructed on reinforced concrete columns on a 10.8x18metre grid. The load is transferred between the columns and the floor beams by means of a pre-casted bracket. Pre-cast ‘yokes’ cast into inverted U-beam transmit the loads of the floor grid to the perimeter columns via the brackets. The great columns, both the exterior of the building and within the atrium, stand proud of the cladding, increasing the highly articulated ‘Gothic’ effects of Llyods. External cross-braces are actually made of steel tube concrete grid open to view.
By using beams with parallel sides and sharp arises Rogers emphasizes that the floor is a grid not a solid, coffered slab
Main concrete columns
In situ concrete was latter substituted. U-beams transfer the loads of the floor grid to the columns via a bracket system
Pre-cast concrete bracket and ‘yoke’ assemblies
Pre-cast concrete bracket
Axonometrics of the pre-cast concrete ‘kit of parts’ for the sevices towers
A significant amount of natural lighting reaching down into G/F demonstrates the success in the design of the atrium.
mains services running vertically down the towers and connected into each level of the building through the raised floor and ceiling void.
The layers of structure, services and cladding articulate the elevation
Servant towerswith incorporation of raised flooring system and ceiling void
All the 33 prefabricated lavatory pods were brought to the site on trucks and then hoisted into position prior to linking up to the service riser
submitted by: Nishith Singh, b arch (4th yr.)