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Interest Groups. Groups have a significant impact on policy Single-issue politics Interest groups Organized membership Pursuit of policy goals from shared interest of members. Background. Make profits, provide jobs, improve pay, or protect occupation

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Presentation Transcript

Background

Background


Economic groups

  • Make profits, provide jobs, improve pay, or protect occupation

  • Property is “most common and durable source of factions”

  • Types:

    • Business

    • More than ½

    • Size factor

      • Small groups are more united and oftentimes have more resources

  • Access to financial resources

Economic groups


Type i labor groups

  • Active since 1930s occupation

  • AFL-CIO

    • 9 million members

    • Only 1 in 8 workers unionized today

Type I: Labor groups


Type ii agricultural groups

  • Farm organizations occupation

    • American Farm Bureau Federation

  • Do not always agree on policy issues

  • Specialty associations too

Type II: Agricultural groups


Type iii professional groups

  • AMA occupation

  • ABA

  • AAUP

Type III: Professional groups


Private v public goods

Private v. Public Goods


Citizens groups

Citizens’ groups


Types of citizen groups

  • Public-Interest Groups provide significant individual economic benefits

    • Less tangible benefits and more widely shared

    • LWV

  • Single-Issue Groups

    • Risen sharply in 30 years

    • Environmental groups (Sierra Club)

  • Ideological Groups

    • Broad agenda from philosophical or moral position

      • NOW

      • NAACP

Types of Citizen Groups


Governments

Governments


Economic v citizens

  • Economic provide significant individual economic benefits

    • A: Economic activity provides organization with resources needed

    • A: Encouraged to join for economic benefits

    • D: May not support political efforts

  • Citizen

    • A: Support political

    • D: Must raise funds

    • D: Free-rider problem

Economic v. Citizens


Lobbying

  • Make contact with officials provide significant individual economic benefits

  • Huge industry—K Street

  • 20,000 in DC

  • Spend more than $1B annually

  • Must register

Lobbying


Inside lobbying

  • Group efforts to develop and maintain close relationships with policymakers

  • Access does NOT equal influence

    • But…

  • Used to use money…now we use information

  • Congress

    • Fair play

    • Provide info, rely on allies, push steadily but not too aggressively

  • Executive Agencies

    • Formulation and implementation

    • Capture Theory

  • Courts

    • Judge selection

    • Law suits

Inside Lobbying


Iron triangle

Iron Triangle


How iron triangle benefits all

  • Government agency legislators, and lobbyists who seek to develop policies beneficial to a particular interest

    • Administers program (IG)

    • Constituent services (C)

  • Interest groups

    • Lobby support (GA)

    • Election support (C)

  • Congressional subgroup

    • Budget/program support (GA)

    • Favorable legislation (IG)

How Iron Triangle Benefits All…


Issue networks

Issue Networks


Outside lobbying

  • Bring constituency pressure to bear on policymakers specialists who come together temporarily around a policy problem

  • Grassroots lobbying

    • AARP

  • Votes

    • Reward friends, punish enemies

  • Send money

    • PAC

      • Ceiling is $10k per candidate

      • Voluntary contributions from members of employees

      • Eight times more money to incumbents than challengers

        • Why?

Outside Lobbying


Pluralism

  • Organized interests are a source of good governance specialists who come together temporarily around a policy problem

  • But is there a “collective interest”?

  • Minorities can rule if interest group has most clout

  • Interest-group liberalism

    • Lowi

    • Support demands of interest group with special stake in policy

    • Weakens majority rule

    • Inefficient use of resources

    • Unequal distibution

Pluralism


Thursday

Thursday


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