Cosponsorship Data. 280,000 “ bills ” proposed in the U.S. House and Senate from 1973 to 2004 (93rd-108th Congresses) recorded in Thomas over 2.1 million cosponsorship signatures partitioned by chamber and Congress to create 32 separate cosponsorship networks
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Define modularity to be
Q = (number of edges within groups) – (expected number within groups).
Actual Number of Edges between i and j is
Expected Number of Edges between i and j is
over pairs (i, j) that are in the same group
Where B is a new characteristic matrix, the modularity marix,
Note that there is no need to forbid the solution with all the vertices in a single group.
The vertices represent 105 recent books sold from Amazon.com
Divide the books according to their political alignment
Liberal / Conservative / Centrist