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Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Thomas A. Ricard University of South Florida Major Advisor: Dr. Thomas Weller Co-Advisor: Dr. Jeffrey Harrow. Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis. Introduction / Prior Research Methodology

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slide1

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer

Detection and Diagnosis

Thomas A. Ricard

University of South Florida

Major Advisor: Dr. Thomas Weller

Co-Advisor: Dr. Jeffrey Harrow

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide2

Introduction / Prior Research

  • Methodology
  • Refinements
  • Future Directions
  • Milestone Estimates
  • Future Work / Further Applications
  • References
  • Acknowledgements and Thanks

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide3

Introduction

  • Three known types of skin cancer:
    • Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Malignant Melanoma

Malignant melanoma accounts for 5% of skin cancer incidences,

but is responsible for 71% of skin cancer deaths! [1]

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide4

Introduction

Our Goal:

To use microwave illumination to detect and classify skin

lesions as cancerous or non-cancerous, benign or malignant,

using a non-invasive, real-time system that will reduce the need

for excision and biopsy.

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide5

Introduction

  • Prior Research
  • Low Frequency Impedance Spectroscopy [2]:
    • Measurement of skin impedance at various frequencies (from 1 KHz to 1 MHz)
    • Some differentiation found between lesions and malignancies
    • Results insufficiently conclusive for a “stand-alone” test

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide6

Introduction

Prior Research

Probe used in impedance

spectroscopy measurements

Consists of four concentric

electrodes

Outer electrode diameter

approximately 10 mm

Reference [3]

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide7

Introduction

Prior Research

Impedance data comparing

benign lesions to basal cell

carcinoma.

Overlapping S.D. markers

demonstrate insufficient

differentiation.

Reference [3]

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide8

Introduction

Prior Research

High Frequency Lightwave Technology [4]

  • Analyzes spectrum of reflected visible & infrared light waves

Relatively simple, since

only surface characteristics

can be studied

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide9

Introduction

Prior Research

Spectral data comparing

benign and cancerous

skin lesions.

Malignancy indicated by

spectral “dip” at 580 nm.

Reference [4]

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide10

Introduction

Prior Research

  • Relatively low depth of penetration
  • Tissue reflectance coefficients increase with frequency
  • Reference [5]

Reflectance

Frequency

Wavelength(nm)

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide11

Introduction

Our Research

  • Using microwave radiation to illuminate areas of the skin:
    • Higher frequency than impedance spectroscopy
    • Less ambiguous results
    • Lower frequency than lightwave technology
    • Less attenuation vs. depth of penetration

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide12

Introduction

Why Use Microwave Frequencies?

Successes in Related Research:

El-Shenawee, January 2004 [6]

Differences in dielectric properties

of normal and malignant breast

tissues at microwave frequencies.

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide13

Introduction

Why Use Microwave Frequencies?

Successes in Related Research:

Hagness et al., August 2003 [7]

Microwave imaging of closely-

spaced breast tumor phantoms

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide14

Introduction

Microwave Radiation:

Between Impedance Spectroscopy and Lightwave Technology

http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/waves3.html

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide15

Methodology

  • Concept of Electromagnetic Reflections:
    • Well-known and understood aspect of electromagnetic field theory
    • Similar to the reflection and transmission of lightwaves
    • Also analogous to audio reverberations, or echoes

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide16

Methodology

Theory of Multiple Reflections:

Signals reflect when medium characteristics change

Reference [8]

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide17

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Block Diagram

  • Non-biological samples
  • Known electrical properties
  • Single frequency (10 GHz)

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide18

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Data Analysis

X-Band Horn

Antenna

Gain  23 dB

Half - Power

Beamwidth

 12.8°

@ 10 GHz

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide19

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Data Analysis

Determining Apparent Voltage Reflection Coefficient (A)

  • Return Loss: RL = -20 log (Reflected Voltage / Incident Voltage)
  • Return Loss corrected for system losses (SL  15.3 dB, verified
  • by analysis and direct measurement
  • of cabling and switching losses)
  • Convert to voltage ratio: A =10- (RL-SL)/20

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide20

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Data Analysis

Far- Field A

Approximation:

A =(G)1/2

(4)3/2R2

[9]

Antenna

Response

from Flat-

Plate Reflector

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide21

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Data Analysis

Far- Field

Approximation

Antenna

Response

from Flat-

Plate Reflector

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide22

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Data Analysis

To verify test setup

Why this exercise? To verify test methods

To verify analysis methods

The good news: Good fit between measurements

and far-field data

Good radar cross-section correlation

Measured  = 38.1 dBsm

Analytical  = 42.4 dBsm [9]

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide23

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Data Analysis

  • Test setup mimics a network analyzer
  • Return Loss = -20 log (Reflected Voltage / Incident Voltage)
  • Return Loss corrected for system losses ( 15.3 dB, verified
  • by analysis and direct measurement of cabling and switching losses)
  • Comparison to Advanced Design Systems simulations using
  • Ideal Transmission Lines
  • Correction does not account for signal spreading losses and
  • field of view (antenna-to-sample, sample-to-antenna)

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide24

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Test Data

  • TABLE 1
  • SINGLE LAYER/COMBINATION DIELECTRIC SAMPLE RETURN LOSS
  • Material(s) AnalyticalMeasured Agreement
  • RT6006 8.88 dB 9.98 dB +1.10 dB
  • TMM101 10.75 dB 9.80 dB -0.95 dB
  • RT 6006/RT5880 11.93 dB 10.97 dB -0.96 dB
  • TMM101/RT5880 11.94 dB 11.21 dB -0.73 dB
  • Non-biological samples
  • Known electrical properties
  • Single frequency (10 GHz)

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide25

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Test Data

SINGLE LAYER/COMBINATION DIELECTRIC SAMPLE

RETURN LOSS SIGNIFICANCE

  • Results show that material changes at a surface can be predicted and detected
  • Methodology can be applied to detection of skin surface
  • phenomena

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide26

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Test Data

DIELECTRIC SAMPLE LAYER REMOVAL PROCEDURE

  • Signal divider “taps off” a portion of the incident signal
  • Signal combiner adds incident sample to
  • reflected signal
  • Partial cancellation possible by varying amplitude and phase of incident signal

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide27

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Test Data

DIELECTRIC SAMPLE LAYER REMOVAL PROCEDURE

1.) Measure bottom layer reflection magnitude (single layer directly on absorber layer).

2.) Measure top layer reflection magnitude (single layer directly on absorber layer, bottom layer underneath absorber, to control distances).

3.) Set phase shift and attenuation to cancel top layer response.

4.) Insert bottom layer between absorber and top layer (top layer is still same distance from antenna).

5.) Compare response to that measured in step 1.

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide28

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Test Data

TABLE 2

  • DIELECTRIC SAMPLE LAYER REMOVAL RESULTS
  • Top Layer rBottom Layer r / RLRecovered RLAgreement
  • 2.20 6.15 / 39.1 dB 37.9 dB -1.2 dB
  • 9.80 6.15 / 39.1 dB 39.5 dB +0.4 dB
  • 2.20 9.80 / 38.3 dB 37.4 dB -0.9 dB
  • 6.15 9.80 / 38.3 dB 38.0 dB -0.3 dB

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide29

Methodology

“Proof-of-Concept” Test Data

DIELECTRIC SAMPLE LAYER REMOVAL SIGNIFICANCE

  • Results show that material changes underneath a surface can
  • be predicted and detected
  • Methodology can be applied to detection of subcutaneous
  • phenomena

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide30

Refinements

  • Investigate near-field horn antenna characteristics using HFSS simulation software.
  • Will near-field approximations also coincide with measured reflector response?

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide31

Refinements

  • Investigate possible antenna alternatives:
  • Aperture waveguide antenna:
  • Gain with respect to horn antenna?
  • Beamwidth / Field-of-View with respect to horn antenna?
  • Coaxial probes
  • Predictable response
  • Lose non-contact nature of testing
  • Constant distance - not affected by R2 effects
  • Fringing effects (non-axial signal spreading) ?

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide32

Future Direction

  • Extend “proof-of-concept” to frequencies applicable to biological phenomena
  • Questions:
          • What are we going to look for?
          • Where are we going to look for it?

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide33

Future Direction

Our Idea: O2 Resonance at 60 GHz

Why O2?

Tumors tend to be

angiogenic, increasing

blood supply to support

metastasis. [10], [11], [12]

Altered blood flow

implies variable tissue

oxygenation levels.

[13], [14]

http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide34

Future Direction

Our Idea: O2 Resonance at 60 GHz

Why 60 GHz?

Most pronounced

absorption peak. [9], [15]

[16]

Within capabilities of

present-day measurement

equipment (e.g., Anritsu

37397C Network Analyzer)

http://www.educatorscorner.com

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide35

Future Direction

  • Use of biologically-derived skin samples (laboratory mice)
  • Work with Moffitt Cancer Center and James A. Haley Veterans Hospital (Co-advisement, laboratory use, materials)
  • Begin construction of skin lesion characteristics database

http://health.yahoo.com/centers/skin_cancer/5

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide36

Milestones

Task Estimated/Completed Date

Proof-of-concept experimentation, To be completed Jan. 2006

data collection and analysis

Begin oxygenation studies at 60 GHz January 2006

(Non-biological materials)

Apply techniques to simulated June 2006

biological samples

Acquire third-generation test specimen January 2007

in conjunction with cutaneous Oncology

specialists (laboratory mice)

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide37

Future Work / Further Applications

  • Establish characteristics database
    • Benign and malignant tumors of various types for future correlation and identification
  • Apply technology to characterize burn and wound areas
  • Other Applications:
    • Psoriasis studies
    • Mechanical stress (pressure points, etc.)
    • Breast Cancer (Ductal carcinoma in-situ microcalcifications)

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide38

References

  • [1]Thomas, J. “Skin Cancer – The Facts”, www.skincancerfacts.org.uk, May 2004.
  • [2] Åberg, P.; Nicander, I.; Holmgren, U.; Geladi, P. and Ollmar, S. “Assessment of Skin Lesions and Skin Cancer using Simple Electrical Impedance Indices”, Skin Research and Technology 2003, vol. 9, pp. 257 – 261.
  • [3] Dua, R.; Beetner, D.; Stoecker, W. and Wunsch, D. “Detection of Basal Cell
  • Carcinoma Using Electrical Impedance and Neural Networks”, IEEE
  • Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, January 2004, pp. 66 - 71.
  • [4] Mehrübeoğlu, M.; Kehtmavaz, N.; Marquez, G.; Duvic, M. and Wang, L.V. “Skin Lesion Classification Using Oblique-Incidence Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopic Imaging”, Applied Optics, January 2002, pp. 182 – 192.

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide39

References

  • [5] Cui, W.; Ostrander, L.E. and Lee, B.Y. “In Vivo Reflectance of Blood and Tissue as a Function of Light Wavelength”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, June 1990, pp. 632 – 639.
  • [6] El-Shanawee, M. “Resonant Spectra of Malignant Breast Cancer Tumors Using the Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Fast Multipole Model”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, January 2004, pp.35 - 44.
  • [7] Bond, E.J.; Xu, L.; Hagness, S.C.; Van Veen, B.D. “Microwave Imaging via Space-Time Beamforming for Early Detection of Breast Cancer”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, August 2003, pp. 1690 - 1705.
  • [8] Balanis, C., Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989.

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide40

References

  • [9] NAWCWPNS TP 8347, Electronic Warfare and Radar Systems Engineering
  • Handbook (Rev. 2), Washington, DC: Naval Air Systems Command Avionics Department, 1 April 1999.
  • [10] Freinkel, R.K. and Woodley, D.T., eds., The Biology of the Skin, New York:
  • Parthenon Publishing Group, 2001.
  • [11] Kleinsmith, L.J.; Kerrigan, D.; Kelly, J. and Hollen, B. “Understanding Angiogenesis”, National Cancer Institute,
  • http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/angiogenesis
  • [12] Steen, R.G., A Conspiracy of Cells - The Basic Science of Cancer, New York: Plenum Press, 1993.

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide41

References

[13] Pindera, M.Z.; Ding, H. and Lin, P.C. “Development and Validation of

Angiogenesis Models”. Huntsville, AL: CFD Research Corporation, 2005.

[14] Folkman, J. “Angiogenesis and Its Inhibitors”, DeVita, V.T.Jr.; Hellman, S.

And Rosenberg, S.A., eds., Important Advances in Oncology 1985,

Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1985.

[15] Stimson, G.W., Introduction to Airborne Radar, El Segundo, CA: Hughes

Aircraft Company, 1983.

[16] Brussard, G. and Watson, P.A., Atmospheric Modeling and Millimetre Wave

Propagation, London: Chapman and Hall, 1995.

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide42

Acknowledgement

Support provided by the NSF IGERT grant DGE Grant No., DGE-0221681

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide43

And Thanks To...

Committee Members

Dr. Thomas Weller (Major Advisor)

Dr. Jeffrey Harrow (Co-Advisor)

Dr. Shekar Bhansali

Dr. Lawrence Dunleavy

Dr. Noreen Luetteke

Dr. Nagarajan Ranganathan

Dr. John Whitaker

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide44

And Thanks Also To...

Mr. Bernard Batson

Dr. Don Hilbelink

Ms. Gayla Montgomery

Ms. Norma Paz

Emerson & Cuming Microwave Products

EZ Form Cable Corporation

Rogers Corporation

Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

slide45

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Microwave Spectroscopy in Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis