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Chapter 34 Power Point Project

Chapter 34 Power Point Project

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Chapter 34 Power Point Project

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  1. Chapter 34 Power Point Project By: Kamalpreet Singh

  2. Words to Know for Chapter 34 • Gross domestic Product - the total value of all goods and services produced by a nation. • Commune - included several villages, thousands of acres of land and up to 25,000 people. • Zaibatsu – powerful banking and industrial families in Japan in the late 1800’s.

  3. Japan Becomes Economic Superpower • In 1945, Japan had suffered the most devastating property damage of any involved in WWII. • Under General Douglas MacArthur, the American military had two goals for the occupation of Japan: to destroy militarism and to ensure democratic government. Japan’s army was disbanded. • Japan would never maintain military forces except for its own defense. • In 1946, a new constitution was made that stripped the emperor of its power. Power was vested to the people, who elected representatives to the diet, or parliament. • The constitution protected basic rights such as freedom of thought, press, and assembly. • American occupying forces reformed Japan’s education system to open it to al people.. They emphasized legal equality for all people. • The Americans introduced economic reforms designed to promote democracy. A sweeping land-reforms program divided u large estates among tenant farmers. The former owners received payments , while peasants owned land for the first time. This change erased lingering traces of feudalism in Japan. • The American tried to disband the zaibatsu, but the Japanese resisted., The felt that large firms were needed to compete internationally.

  4. The Cold War • By 1950, Japan was on the way to road to recovery. Around the same time, the cold war was making the United States eager to end the occupation and turn its WWII enemy into an ally. • As the Cold War erupted in to n armed conflict in nearby Korea , the united States signed a peace treaty. In 1952, the occupation ended. • Japan and the United States preserved close ties during the Cold War. The American military operated out of bases that they set up in Japan. Japan & its neighbors • Japan's dependence on the world’s market was due to oil. • Japan’s industries had fed on cheap imported oil. • Japan had to deal with many of its neighbor in the economy world.. • Many of theses nations still held bitter memories of World War II. Especially Southeast Asia who had suffered terribly under Japanese occupation and many other countries such as China, and Korea. • Japan was slow to apologize for its wartime actions, but it worked hard to regain their trust. • By 1980’s , Japan was a major investor in China and the emerging nation of Southeast Asia. 10 years later Japan made a public regret of the deaths and destruction of the war years.

  5. Japanese Successes • Japan started to produce its own economic miracle. It produced many gross domestic products (GDP). • By the 1970’s Japanese cars, cameras, and television sets were sold on the world market. In later years, Japanese's electronic goods – from computers and robots were also competing on the world market. Especially against the western and American products. Many American automakers felt a threat to their decades of dominance due to many Americans started to buy Japanese cars. • Japan depended on a small island nation with a few resources on Trade. It imported oil and other raw materials like iron ore. The reasons of theses successes were that they built brand new, efficient, modern factories that out produced the older ones that were used in the west. • Japan also benefited from a well educated and skilled force. Thanks to the post war education war reforms almost all of Japanese's population went to high school. • Japanese's workers also saved their pay which gave banks the capital to invest in industrial growth. Japan also benefited from the restrictions military. This gave Japan to spend little money on Japan and therefore invested in the economy • And most of all, Japan’s high tariffs and many regulations kept foreign imports very low, which gave them a boost from home!

  6. Changing Patterns • In the past 50 years, Japan enjoyed many economic success. In 1990’s Japan faced its worst depression since the 1930’s. • Companies had to make cut-backs. Many workers lost the security of guaranteed lifetime employment. • Japan’s democracy has survived many crisis. The Liberal Democratic party (LDP) has dominated the government for many years. • The LDP is a coalitions of conservative factions that compete behind the scenes for top government positions. • In the 1990’s, charges of corruption greatly weakened the LDP. • In Japan today, 80% of Japan’s population live in the cities. The cities are now getting hugely overcrowded. • Housing in the cities became very expensive, and the space became very scarce.. • Most people in Japan live in a tiny, cramped apartments. Many Japanese moved to the suburbs but had to travel very far to work. • In 1995, a severe earthquake damaged the city of Kobe. This shook the Japanese faith in modern “quake-proof” technology. This led to many questions because the highways and other structures were made by this technology. • Women of Japan had had legal equality and often controlled the family finances. • About half the women work outside the home, but most are in low paying jobs or in family-run businesses. • Fewer women then men get a university education. • Only a handful have moved into higher-level positions in businesses and government.

  7. From Revolution to Reform in China • After WWII, Mao Zedong’s communist forces and Jiang Jieshi’s Nationalists had bitter struggle for power that had begun in 1940’s. Civil War had begun until Mao’s forces swept to victory an set up the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Reasons of Success: • Mao won the support of China’s huge peasant population. Peasants had suffered brutal landlords and crushing taxes. The Communist pledged to distribute land to poor peasants and end oppression by landlords • Women also supported Mao. The Nationalists had done little to improve their harsh lives. Women were still seen inferior to men. • The communists rejected the inequalities of the old Confucian society such as “ Women hold up half the sky”. • Mao’s army was superior to Jiang’s. With the Guerilla tactics they had perfected against the Japanese in WWII, they out fought Jiang’s armies. • Many educated Chinese saw Jiang’s government as morally and politically bankrupt. • Many Chinese people were drawn to communism for a new China an end to domination by foreigners who had humiliated their country for so long.

  8. Remaking Chinese life • Once Mao was in charge, he was determined to turn things around. The government drew up five year plans to designed to increase coal and steel output and develop heavy industry. • To boost agriculture , Mao distributed land to peasants. He encouraged them to “speak bitterness” against landlords. • Mao also built a one-party totalitarian state like Lenin. The Communist ideology replaced the Confucian beliefs an traditional religions. • To increase literacy, reformers simplified Chinese characters, making it easier to learn to read and write. Schools were opened for young and the old. • Under China’s new constitution women won equality under the law. They were expected to work alongside men in fields and factories. Although they made progress, they did not get the same pay as the men, and only a few got promoted. • In 1958, Mao launched the “Great leap Forward”. He urged people to make an effort to increase the farm and industrial output. That lead him to make communes..

  9. China and the Cold War • The rift between the USA and China deepened when they supported opposing side. For many years, USA tried to isolate China because they felt that they were spreading communism to Asia, but however in 1958 they finally got admission to the United Nations. • A year later, President Nixon met with Mao in Beijing and tried to open the doors to improved relations. • China and the Soviet Union and very good friendships but also had many differences. Mao and Stalin disagreed in many things, especially ideology. Mao had adapted Marxism. • Marx had predicted that industrial working class would cause a revolution, since China had very little industry, so Mao relied on his peasant workers then factory worker to make an revolution. Stalin rejected theses views despite theier very good friendship.

  10. China after Mao • Mao Zedong died in 1976. Despite his disastrous mistakes, he remained the revolutionary hero who had restored order, ended foreign reign, and made China a world power again. • After Mao, more moderate leaders controlled China, therefore setting China on a new path. • BY 1981, Den Xiaoping, a practical reformer was more interested in raising output than in political purity. • Deng backed a program called the four modernization. It emphasized agriculture, industry, science, and defense, • As, part of the four modernization, Deng introduced economic reforms, including some private ownerships of property and free market policies. In agriculture, peasant families were allotted plots of farmland that replace communes. • By the late 1980’s, Chinese people were demanding more political freedom. IN May 1989, demonstarters occupied Tiananmen Square and built a statue called the Goddess of Liberty., and waved banners saying, “Give us freedom or give us death”. When they refused to disperse, the government sent in troops and tanks, and killed thousand of demonstraters and some were tortured to death. • This showed that China’s Communist leaders were determined to maintain control and for them order was more important then political freedom.

  11. Greater China: Taiwan • Taiwan fell to Japan in 1985 during the age of imperialism. Then in 1945 Taiwan reverted to China. • Taiwan’s economy grew at a phenomenal rate. First Taiwan set up a light industries such as textiles but later, it developed a heavy industries as well. • As trade boomed, industrial cities emerged and the island’s standard of living rose to Asia’s highest. Encouraged by success the government allowed the people more freedom. • Business from Taiwan took advantage of Deng Xiaoping’s economy reforms to invest in the mainland. Many projects in China ‘s coastal enterprises zones were financed by Taiwan. Greater China: Hong Kong • Britain gained Hong Kong during the Opium War, in 1852.Under British rule, Hong Kong and near by territories grew into center of trades • In 1949, refugees from Mao’s Communist revolution jammed into Hong Kong . They provided labor and capital that helped territory boom. • Today, Hong Kong’s economy is based on trade and light industry such as electronics and textiles. With many foreign banks and a busy stock market , led Hong Kong to be a financial center. That wealth helped it to modernize. • Hong Kong’s amazing growth was due to its location. It was right on China’s doorstep. Hong Kong Chinese built commercial ties at a time when the People's Republic was isolated by the world community. • On July 1, 1997, Britain must return Hong Kong.. The People’s Republic agreed not to alter Hong Kong’s social or economic system for 50 years and allow it to be self-government.

  12. Singapore • The smallest Asian tiger is the city-state of Singapore. It sit on a tiny island at the tip of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. This location gives Singapore a busy shipping route. • In the 1800’s, the British built a navel base at Singapore which grew into a center of commerce. Many Chinese, under British rule brought in to process tin and rubber from Malaya. • After independence, Lee Kwan Yew ran a highly authoritarian government based on Confucian traditions. To achieve order, he put many restrictions on citizens, for example: gum chewing is prohibited. He also used strict censorship. • Lee also launched programs for economic growth and social welfare. BY keeping labor costs low, he attracted foreign capital that helped Singapore’s economy boom, and boosted its standard of living. • By 1980’s, Singapore became the worlds busiest harbor from manufacturing, finance, and trade.

  13. The Two Koreas • In 1910, Japan annexed Korea and imposed a brutal regime on the peninsula. After the allied victory of WWII, the USSR and USA agreed to a temporary division of Korea. North Korea became a communist ally of USSR and in South Korea, USA backed an authoritarian but non-communist leader Sybgaman Rhee. • In 1950, North Korea invades South, determined to unify the country under one rule. Backed by the UN, United States organized a force to help South Korea. The UN forces were commanded by US general Douglas MacArthur. After landing troops behind enemy line he drove the invaders back to the 38th parallel He continued to push towards thee Yalu river on the border of China. • Macarthur's success moved China into action. Mao feared an American invasion. He sent Chinese troops to help North Koreans and together they p[ushed the UN forces back to the 38th parallel. • Fighting continued till 1953, when they signed a armistice. That cease-fire has held more then 40 years. More then a million North and South Korean troops dug in along the truce line. American forces also stayed in South Korea to insure peace.

  14. Differences of North and South Korea • After the war, the two Korea slowly rebuilt economies destroyed by the fighting and by years of Japanese occupations. The United States gave aid to South Korea , while the Soviets helped the North. • South Korea was ahead of North Korea economically wise. At first, it exported textiles and inexpensive goods. Then is started to export higher priced exports such as automobiles. • Its strong growth was due in part to low wages paid to workers. By the 1990’s, South Korea a economic powerhouse. Workers started to demand a better pay and the standard of living rose remarkably. • Under Kim Sung, North Korea recovered form the war. State-owned industries and collective farms increased output. • In the late 1960’s , however growth sowed, .Kim’s emphasis on self reliance kept North America isolated from the world. But its friends like the Soviets and China , tried out economic reforms in the 1980’s. • North Korea started to set up nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons, but under intense pressure from the United States, they agreed to dismantle them. In exchange North Korea wanted the Unied States to supply them with oil and begin the process of diplomatic recognition.

  15. Decades of War in Vietnam • In Southeast Asia, an intense liberation struggle tore apart the region once known as French Indochina.. It affected nations such as Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. The 30 year conflict had two phases: the battle against the French and the Cold War conflict. • The first phase of the struggle lasted from 1946 to 1954. In 1946, the French set out to regain Indochina. Ho Chi Minh, the Vietnamese communist had peasant support.. With peasant support Ho’s guerrilla fighters slowly wore down the French and forced them to leave.. • By this time, the struggle in Vietnam had become part of the cold war . At a 1954 conference in Geneva, Switzerland, western and communist powers agreed to a temporary divisions of Vietnam • Ho and the communist ruled the North Vietnam and the United Sates and leader Ngo Dinh Diem ruled South Vietnam. Cambodia and Laos became independent nations • The agreement called for elections to reunite Vietnam . The election never took place because the Americans and Diem feared that the communists might win. • The second phase of the Vietnam war was from 1956 to 1975. Ho Chi Minh wanted to unite Vietnam under Northern rule. He supported the Viet Cong, communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in South Vietnam. • In 964, USA began bombing targets in North Vietnam. When air raids failed to force Ho to abandon the war, the United States committed more troops. Even with massive American help, South Vietnam could not defeat the communist guerillas and their North Vietnamese allies. • At the same time, American casualties began to grow, President Nixon finally arranged a cease-fire and began with drawling of American forces in 1973. • Two years later, North Vietnamese captures Saigon, capitol of the south, and reunited the country.

  16. Tragedy in Cambodia • During the Vietnam War, fighting went over into neighboring Cambodia. The North Vietnamese sent supplies through Cambodia to guerrilla forces in South Vietnam. • In 1969, the United States bombed that route and then invaded Cambodia. After the Americans left, Cambodian communist guerrillas, the Khmer Rouge, overthrew the government. • Led by Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge unleashed a reign of terror. To destroy all western influences, they drove people from the cities to the people. They slaughtered more then a million Cambodians. In 1979 Vietnam invaded and occupied Cambodia. Pol Pot and his followers retreated.. 1993, UN peacekeepers, supervised elections. Independence for the Philippines • In 1946, the island nation gained independence peacefully after five decades of American rule. The United States, however, exerted a strong influence on the country through military and economic aid. • Although the Filipinos constitution set up a democratic government, a wealthy elite controlled politics and economy. • Many peasants threw their support behind the Huks, or local communists who promised land reform. In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Marco had promised reforms but instead he made himself a dictator. • Under heavy pressure, Marcos finally held elections in 1986. At the polls, Corazon Aquino, widow of the slain Benigno, defeated Marcos. When Marcos tried to overturn the results, people of manila forced him to leave. Under Aquino and her successors the fragile Filipino democracy survived.

  17. Quiz: Part 1 1)The Great Leap Forward in China and the five-year plans in the Soviet Union were attempts to increase A) Private Capital Investment B) Religious Tolerance C) Individual Ownerships D) Industrial Productivity 2) The main reason the Chinese Communists gained control of mainland China in1949 was thatA) they were supported by many warlords and upper class Chinese B) the United States had supported the Chinese Communist Party during World War II C) the dynamic leadership of Mao Zedong had the support of the peasant class D) they had superior financial resources and were supported by Japan 3) During the 1980’s, the Chinese government adopted policies designed to A) Increase industrial productivity B) Reestablish Confucian traditions and values C) Gain colonies throughout east Asia D) maintain its isolation from world events

  18. Quiz: Part 2 1)After World War II, the Chinese Communists were successful in their revolution mainly because the A) United States refused to support the Nationalists B) Communists had the support of the peasants C) Communist had more technologically advanced weapons D) Nationalists had been defeated by Japan 2) A major reason of the success of the Communist revolution in China was that the Communist A) Stressed Buddhism in their Military training B) Included important businessmen in their ranks C) Promised land and power to the peasants D) Fought successfully against the United States in WWII

  19. Answers to Quizzes QUIZ # 1 • D: Increase productivity • C: The dynamic leadership of Mao Zedong had the support of the peasant class • A: Increase industrial productivity QUIZ # 2 • B: Communist had the support of the peasants • C:Promised land and power to the peasant class

  20. THE END!!