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THE 7 BASIC QUALITY TOOLS PowerPoint Presentation
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THE 7 BASIC QUALITY TOOLS

THE 7 BASIC QUALITY TOOLS

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THE 7 BASIC QUALITY TOOLS

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  1. THE 7 BASIC QUALITY TOOLS Susan Batchilder January 24, 2013

  2. Group Activity:WHAT’S IN YOUR TOOL BOX? • What is the purpose of your personal toolbox? • cleaning, fixing, remembering, coaching, etc… • What’s in your personal tool box? • When did you last use your tool box? • Do you have a tool box for your job? • What is the purpose of your tool box for work?

  3. QUALITY TOOLS • Purpose: provide the means for making decisions. • No particular tool is mandatory, any one may be helpful, depending on the circumstances. • 95% of a company’s problems can be solved using these tools. • These are basic tools designed for simplicity. • Only one requires any significant training. Question: What tools do YOU use for making decisions in YOUR job?

  4. 7 BASIC QUALITY TOOLS • FLOW CHART • CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMS • CHECK SHEET • HISTOGRAMS • PARETO CHART • SCATTER DIAGRAM • CONTROL CHARTS Question: Why do we use these tools?

  5. QUALITY TOOLS CAN… • Help to identify and prioritize problems quickly and more effectively • Assist with the decision making process • Simple but powerful tools for use in continuous improvement activity • Provide a vehicle for communicating problems and resolutions through-out the business • Provide a way of extracting information from data collected.

  6. A Side Topic

  7. STRATIFICATION • The 7 Quality Tools are useful when collecting data of daily activities and analyzing them to detect and solve problems, and an important concept for data analysis is STRATIFICATION. • Stratification mean classification of data in to a couple of layers, and each layer is a subset of the population. • Through stratification different statuses from the same data is retrieved. • What layers are considered for data analysis is crucial when identifying problems.

  8. Example of Stratification • Number of births per year • Number of births by gender per year • Number of births by mom’s economic status by gender per year • deliveries per week • deliveries per day of the week per week • deliveries by hour per day of week per week • DANAGER: When using stratification ensure it is value added

  9. Back to the 7 Quality Tools

  10. FLOW CHARTS • Purpose: Illustrates the steps in a process • Uses: • Analyzing a process (e.g. relating one setp in the process to others) • Initiate process improvements (e.g. non-value added steps) • Indicates where in the process to take measurements and collect data • DANGER: including assumed or desired steps • Note: The utility of the chart will correlate directly to its accuracy.

  11. Example: Flow Chart

  12. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMS • Purpose: to identify as many possible factors for an effect or problem and sort the causes into useful categories. • When to use? • Identifying possible factors • When team’s thinking falls into a “rut” • Fishbone (most common) • Generic categories: Methods, Machines, Materials, Manpower, Measurement, Mother Nature

  13. HOW TO CREATE A FISHBONE CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM Manpower Machines Methods Problem Statement “Effect” Management Mother Nature Measurement Materials Maintenance

  14. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMS • Other fishbone categories: • Plan, Policies, Procedures, Plant, People • Customers, Suppliers, Shipping, Warehouse… • 5 WHYS: a method for getting to the root cause. • Can also be used during the construction of the fishbone diagram. • GROUP ACTIVITY TIME – Let determine the cause of a particular problem. Please give me a problem statement and we’ll use the 6M’s.

  15. GROUP ACTIVITY TIME Manpower Machines Methods Problem Statement “Effect” Mother Nature Measurement Materials

  16. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMSNow What? • Categorize (e.g. not probable, probable, very probable) • Regression analysis (requires in-depth training) • Design of experiments (requires in-depth training) • Lets go back to our example and determine what our next steps will be. • Do you remember the first time you heard about a check list with regards to data collection?

  17. Example of a Check List

  18. CHECK SHEET • WHAT: A structured and prepared form. • PURPOSE: To collect and analyze data so decisions can be based on facts • WHEN: • When data can be observed and collected by the same person or at the same location. • When collecting data on the frequency or pattern of events, problems, defects, defect location, defect causes, etc. • When collecting data from a production process. • Data can further be used to create a histogram, bar chart and Pareto chart

  19. A Check List Can Become … A Bar Graph

  20. HISTOGRAM • WHAT: A frequency distribution bar graph • USES: • Illustrates how often each different value in a data set occurs • Allows us to make sense of data • Allows use to see patterns that are difficult to see in tables of numbers • DANGER: Before making any conclusions from a histogram, it must be confirmed the process was operating normally during the time period being studied

  21. Language of HistogramsWhat do they tell us?

  22. SCATTER DIAGRAM • WHAT: Scatter diagram graphs PAIRS of numerical data. • PURPOSE: To look for a possible relationship • DANGER: Even if the scatter diagram shows a relationship, do not assume one variable causes the other. Both variable may be influenced by a third.

  23. Scatter Diagram Examples Graph 1 – strong correlation (linear) Graph 2 – moderate correlation Graph 3 – no correlation Also – quadratic, exponential, sinusoidal, and others

  24. PARETO CHART • What: Bar graph organized with the longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right • Purpose: Problem identification tool --- Visually depicts which issues are more significant • Use when… • Analyzing data about the frequency of problems/causes in a process • There are many problems/causes and there is a need to focus on the most significant • Analyzing broad causes by looking at their specific components • Communicating data to others

  25. PARETO PRINCIPLE 20/80 RULE • THE IDEA THAT 20% OF THE CAUSES GENERATES 80% OF THE RESULTS With the Pareto chart we are identifying the “vital few” from the “trivial many”.

  26. PARETO CHART EXAMPLE

  27. CONTROL CHARTS • What: A statistical graphical representation used to study how a process changes over time • Purpose: To distinguish between variation in a process resulting from common causes, and variation resulting from special causes. • Data are plotted in time order. • Graphs include a central average line, a upper control limit line and a lower control limit line determined from historical data.

  28. “Out of Control”

  29. Types of Control Charts • Variable (continuous data – measureable) • X-bar Chart (average) • R chart (range) • s chart (deviation) • X chart (single data point – individual) • Moving range chart • XmR (individual with moving range) • Attribute (discrete data – count) • p chart (percentage of defective units) • np chart (number of defective units) • c chart (number of defects per unit) • u chart (average number of defects per unit)

  30. WHICH CONTROL CHART DO I USE?

  31. OTHER TOOLS • 5 WHYs (previously mentioned) • Brainstorming • Time Line • Fault Tree Analysis • Process Analysis

  32. WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ?

  33. 5 WHY’S – an example • Problem --- Why is memorial A deteriorating faster than the other memorials? • Why? –washed more frequently • Why? –more bird droppings • Why? –birds attracted to monument • Why? –more fat spiders around it • Why? –more tiny insects during evening hours • Why? –illumination attracts more insect • Solution • Illuminate an hour later in evening

  34. 5 WHYs Process Best Practice PROBLEM PROBLEM WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? ROOT CAUSE MULTIPLE POTENTIAL ROOT CAUSES

  35. BRAINSTORMING

  36. Brainstorming • Can be performed by an individual or a group • Classic Example – write down anything that comes to mind • Ask questions – 5 Whys • Categorize – Fishbone • Many others

  37. TIME LINE • A presentation of a chronological sequence of events along a drawn line that enables the reader to quickly understand relationships relating to, or limited by, time • Lines are usually drawn from left to right or top to bottom • Example --- murder mysteries, time line of events before and up to the time of death

  38. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS (FTA) • WHAT • A graphic representation of the major faults or critical failures associated with a product, the causes for the faults, and potential countermeasures. • WHY • It helps to identify areas of concern for new product design or for improvements of existing products. • It helps to identify corrective actions to correct or mitigate problems.

  39. FAULT TREE

  40. FTA – When to use? • Designing new products/services • Dealing with identified problems in existing products/services • To optimize process features and goals • To design for critical factors and human error • To help identify root causes of trouble • To design remedies and countermeasures

  41. FAULT TREE

  42. PROCESS ANALYSIS • An operation (e.g. business) is composed of processes designed to add value by transforming inputs into useful outputs. Processes can have a significant impact on the performance of a business and process improvements can improve competitiveness. • A process analysis is performed when the process (as a whole or as a part) needs to be better understood.

  43. Process Analysis • Processes are analyzed to better understand their: • Activities • Relationships • Values of relevant metrics • Process analysis generally involves the following tasks: • Defining process boundaries (input/output) • Process flow diagram • Determining capacity of each step of process • Identifying limiting step(s) • Using analysis to make business decisions and improvements

  44. Process Analysis – Performance Measurements - • Process Capacity • Capacity Utilization • Throughput rate • Throughput time • Process time • Idle time • Work In Process • Set-up time • Direct Labour Content • Direct Labour Utilization

  45. DANGER WIL ROBINSON!

  46. WHY DO TECHNIQUES FAIL? • Problem solvers might question themselves • Am I using the tool correctly? • Is there a misconception in using the tools to find the root cause of problems? • Is there another technique to help me go beyond the basic cause and effect analysis and get better results when investigating issues?

  47. COMMON “DANGERS” • Only tool • Confirmation Bias • Unable to go beyond current knowledge • Human Factors • Single Cause

  48. COMMON “DANGERS”– Only Tool - • Many believe cause and effect analysis is the only, or preferred method to find root causes • Avoid this misconception • You CAN modify approaches, and use other tools alone or in combination