psych 1 discussion section n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Psych 1 Discussion Section PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Psych 1 Discussion Section

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

Psych 1 Discussion Section - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 145 Views
  • Uploaded on

Psych 1 Discussion Section. Week 3. Quiz 2. Please clear your desk of everything except for a pen or pencil and a piece of paper. No talking or use of cell phones or electronics. Write your name, section number (or section time), and date on the piece of paper.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Psych 1 Discussion Section' - amery-hendricks


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
quiz 2
Quiz 2

Please clear your desk of everything except for a pen or pencil and a piece of paper.

No talking or use of cell phones or electronics.

Write your name, section number (or section time), and date on the piece of paper

slide3

Experimental research is the only way to truly determine causation.

a. True

b. False

2. A study in which the experimenter but not the participant knows the value of the independent variable is called a(n) __________ study.

a. counterbalanced

b. single-blind

c. subjective

d. double-blind

e. objective

slide4

Which of the following is not one the of 5 steps for conducting research?

a. Identifying the problem

b. Designing an experiment

c. Performing the experiment

d. Attending a conference

e. Communicating the results

slide5

An operational definition:

a. is a technique used to measure a dependent variable

b. guarantees that all subjects in a study will be treated equally

c. describes a variable by how it will be measured or manipulated

d. is a form of nominal fallacy

e. describes the effect of the independent variable

slide6

5. When doing research with human participants it is important to comply with all of the following principles except:

a. Confidentiality

b. Informed Consent

c. Misleading subject

d. Debriefing of study to subject

e. Both C and D

slide7

6. Which variable is measured in an experiment?

a. The relational variable

b. The independent variable

c. The causal variable

d. The dependent variable

e. The confounding variable

7. A correolation coefficient of -0.13 indicates:

a. No Correlation

b. A weak negative correlation

c. A weak positive correlation

d. A strong negative correlation

e. A strong positive correlation

slide8

8. Which variable is manipulated in an experiment?

a. The relational variable

b. The independent variable

c. The causal variable

d. The dependent variable

e. The confounding variable

9. Which is NOT an example of a Descriptive Statistic?

a. Statistical significance

b. Standard deviation

c. Variance

d. Mean

e. Median

slide9

10. A researcher wants to know if taking aspirin will decrease heart attacks. Subjects are given 50 mg, 100 mg or 200 mg of aspirin or a sugar pill, then the number of heart attacks are recorded. What is the independent variable?

  • Aspirin
  • Type of medication
  • Heart attacks
  • Amount of medication
  • Severity of heart attack
experiment
Experiment

You show up for a one hour psychology research experiment and the experimenter asks you to watch a computer screen where various pictures of fruit are displayed. The experimenter asks you after each image to describe the basic, elementary, components of your visual experience that you feel within yourself.

This type of psychological approach is known as what?

Structuralism:

Introspection:

What is Introspection?

“Looking within” Observation of stimuli and then describing their experience, by only reporting the elementary data

Introspection is a method for studying psychology which was first developed in what approach/school of thought for studying psychology?

What is Structuralism?

the structure of the mind, the science of immediate experience

Who came up with the system of experimental psychology known as Structuralism?

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

Known as the father of what?

  • Father of Psychology
slide11

This type of researcher focuses on the processes of conscious activity such as learning and perception.

Functionalist

What is Functionalism?

An approach to understanding species’ behaviors and other processes in terms of their biological significance; this approach stresses the usefulness of such processes with respect to survival an reproductive success.

Functionalism grew from the new perspective on nature which was established by what researcher?

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

What was Darwin’s Theory?

Evolution occurred in response to the natural selection of inheritable traits

Darwin obtained evidence that behavior could be inherited; this publication was called?

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872)

slide12

What is the Psychodynamic Theory?

Is the systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior.

Who came up with the Psychodynamic Theory?

Sigmund Freud(1856-1939)

If Freud’s Psychodynamic theory involved structures then how was/is it different from Structuralism?

  • His hypothetical mental operations included many that were unconscious (not available for introspection)
  • Freud emphasized function; his mental structures served biological drives and instincts and reflected out animal nature.
slide13

Unfortunately there has been a recent increase in the number of cars hitting undergraduate bicyclists. A concerned researcher wants to help so he observes how fast the cars are driving through campus. He then posts a sign warning motorists about bicyclists and observes how fast the motorists are driving after the warning sign. This researcher might be called what type of psychologist? (from what ist movement)

Behaviorist

What is Behaviorism?

A movement in psychology that asserts that the only proper subject matter for scientific study in psychology is observable behavior.

Who are some of the important behaviorists?

Edward Thorndike Law of Effect

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

John B. Watson (1878-1958)

Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)

B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

types of research
Types of Research
  • What are the 3 basic types of research?
  • 1. Naturalistic or Clinical Observation
  • 2. Correlational Study
  • 3. Experimental Research
naturalistic or clinical observation
Naturalistic or Clinical Observation

What is the goal of Naturalistic or Clinical Observation?

  • Goal: Observe and record behavior
    • Note: Cannot prove causation or explain behavior
    • But can still reveal important information, such as describing behavior

What are the Types/Methods used for Naturalistic or Clinical Research?

  • Case Studies
  • Surveys & Interviews
  • Naturalistic Observation

What is Naturalistic Observation?

Observation of people or animals in their natural environment

case studies
Case Studies

What are Case Studies?

  • In-depth look at a single individual

Advantages?

  • Gain lots of information about a particular (often rare) phenomenon

Disadvantages?

  • Difficult to generalize to others
  • May not be reliable

Example: Phineas Gage?

A railroad construction foreman now remembered for his incredible survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior—effects so profound that friends saw him as "no longer Gage."

surveys
Surveys

What is a Survey?

Observations of the behaviors of people or other animals in their natural environment.

  • Wording Effects
    • How questions are worded on a survey can change how participants respond
      • Ex. Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid)
      • Ex. “If the situation arose, how likely would you be to report a crime?”
        • Problem: What type of crime?

The examination of relations between two or more measurements of behavior or other characteristics of people or other animals

A study of people’s responses to standardized questions

Observations of behaviors of people or animals while they are undergoing diagnosis or treatment

experimental research
Experimental Research

A study in which the researcher changes the values of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables

What is, (or the goal of) Experimental Research?

What is a Independent Variable?

The variable that is manipulated in an experiment as a means of determining cause-and-effect relations.

What is a Dependent Variable?

The variable measured in an experiment and hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable.

Example ?

slide19

James is setting up an experiment: in it he deprives undergraduates of sleep (0 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours) every night for a week before their psychology exam and then looks at their test scores on a 100 point scale.

What is the Independent Variable?

Sleep Deprivation, amount (0 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours)

What is the Control Group?

Undergraduates who were not deprived of any sleep 0 hours

What is the Experimental Group?

Undergraduates who were deprived of sleep 4 hours and 8 hours

What is the Dependent Variable?

Average Mean Test Score (0 to 100)

slide20

A current is classified as a Slow Inward Current (SIC) if it has rise time greater than 18 to 20 ms AND an amplitude greater than 50 pA., when recorded in the presence of TTX and NBQX.

This description of when/how to classify a current as a SIC is an important example of what when setting up an experiment?

Operational Definition

What is an operational definition?

Definition of a variable in terms of the operations the researcher performs to measure or manipulate it.

slide21

Debra is setting up an experiment: She gives 30 slightly depressed undergraduates 20 mg per day of either Zoloft, Placebo, or Prozac for 3 months. At the end of the three months they take the same survey of 20 questions assessing depression level (1 ‘severely depressed’ to 20 ‘way to happy for society’) which they took at the beginning of the study before treatment. The undergraduates are said to have improved if they score higher than their original score.

What is the Independent Variable?

Medication treatment (Zoloft, Placebo, or Prozac)

What is the Control Group?

Depressed undergraduates assigned to the Placebo Group

What is the Experimental Group?

Depressed undergraduates assigned the Zoloft or Prozac Group

What is the Dependent Variable?

Average Mean Depression Level Score on Survey (0 to 20)

After treatment vs. before treatment

slide22

Professor X wanted to see who had better memory, men or women. He tested 1000 Students by showing them a list of words for 30 seconds, and then tested to see how many words they remembered.

What is the Independent Variable?

  • Gender  Groups are selected based on a predetermined factor

What is the Dependent Variable?

# words recalled  # of words recalled is being directly tested)

Since Professor X is working with humans what must he do before subjecting the participants to his experiment?

Professor X should explain to the participants what the experiment is about and any risks or benefits the experiment might have in order that the person has all the information they need before agreeing to participate in the experiment.

Informed Consent

slide23
Bias

What kind of Bias can you have in your experiment?

Sometimes referred to as “demand characteristics”

  • Occurs when people’s expectations about how they should act or feel changes their behavior or feelings

Participant Bias

Experimenter Bias

slide24

Debra is setting up an experiment: She gives 30 slightly depressed undergraduates 20 mg per day of either Zoloft, Placebo, or Prozac for 3 months. At the end of the three months they take the same survey of 20 questions assessing depression level (1 ‘severely depressed’ to 20 ‘way to happy for society’) which they took at the beginning of the study before treatment. The undergraduates are said to have improved if they score higher than their original score.

Participant Bias?

Medication treatment (Zoloft, Placebo, or Prozac)

How to fix it?

Single Blind Experiment Setup

Experimenter Bias?

Treat subjects getting Zoloft or Prozac differently from Placebo Group

How to fix it?

Double Blind Experiment Setup

slide26

This researcher is know as the father of?

Charles Darwin

Functionalism

Modern Evolutionary Theory

Functionalism

William James

Modern Psychology

Rene Descartes

Dualism

Modern Philosophy

Rationalism

Physiological Psychology

Wilhelm Wundt

Structuralism

Psychology

Psychiatry

PhillippePinel

Edward Thorndike

Behaviorism

Ivan Pavlov

Behaviorism

Margaret Floy Washburn

Behaviorism

Behaviorism

B. F. Skinner

Behaviorism

John B. Watson

video clip
Video Clip
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZdGSh8jGgU