Mobile CommunicationsChapter 4: Wireless Telecommunication Systems GSM Overview Services Sub-systems Components • IS 95 • Overview • Services • Sub-systems • Components
700000 600000 Analog total 500000 GSM total 400000 CDMA total subscribers (x 1000) TDMA total 300000 PDC/PHS total 200000 total 100000 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Mobile phone subscribers worldwide ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM: Overview • GSM • formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) • now: Global System for Mobile Communication • Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute) • simultaneous introduction of essential digital cellular services in three phases (1991, 1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations, seamless roaming within Europe possible • today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 130 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, America) • more than 100 million subscribers ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Performance characteristics of GSM • Communication • mobile, wireless digital communication; support for voice and data services • Total mobility • international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different providers • Worldwide connectivity • one number, the network handles localization • High capacity • better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell • High transmission quality • high audio quality • uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains) – better handoffs and • Security functions • access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Disadvantages of GSM • There is no perfect system!! • no end-to-end encryption of user data • no full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user, no transparent B-channel • abuse of private data possible • roaming profiles accessible • high complexity of the system • several incompatibilities within the GSM standards ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM: Mobile Services • GSM offers • several types of connections • voice connections, data connections, short message service • multi-service options (combination of basic services) • Three service domains • Bearer Services – interface to the physical medium (transparent for example in the case of voice or non transparent for data services) • Telematic Services – services provided by the system to the end user (e.g., voice, SMS, fax, etc.) • Supplementary Services – associated with the tele services: call forwarding, redirection, etc. bearer services MS GSM-PLMN transit network (PSTN, ISDN) source/ destination network TE MT TE R, S Um (U, S, R) tele services ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Bearer Services • Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points • R and S interfaces – interfaces that provide network independent data transmission from end device to mobile termination point. • U interface – provides the interface to the network (TDMS, FDMA, etc.) • Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3) • Transparent – no error control of flow control, only FEC • Non transparent – error control, flow control • Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) • voice service (circuit switched) • synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 Kbps. • data service (circuit switched) • synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s • asynchronous: 300 - 1200 bit/s • data service (packet switched) • synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s • asynchronous: 300 - 9600 bit/s ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Tele Services I • Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones • All these basic services have to obey cellular functions, security measures etc. • Offered voice related services • mobile telephonyprimary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.1 kHz • Emergency numbercommon number throughout Europe (112); mandatory for all service providers; free of charge; connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible) • Multinumberingseveral ISDN phone numbers per user possible ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Tele Services II • Additional services: Non-Voice-Teleservices • group 3 fax • voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed network supporting the mobile terminals) • electronic mail (MHS, Message Handling System, implemented in the fixed network) • ... • Short Message Service (SMS)alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal using the signaling channel, thus allowing simultaneous use of basic services and SMS (160 characters) ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Supplementary services • Services in addition to the basic services, cannot be offered stand-alone • May differ between different service providers, countries and protocol versions • Important services • identification: forwarding of caller number • suppression of number forwarding • automatic call-back • conferencing with up to 7 participants • locking of the mobile terminal (incoming or outgoing calls) • ... ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Architecture of the GSM system • GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) • several providers setup mobile networks following the GSM standard within each country • components • MS (mobile station) • BS (base station) • MSC (mobile switching center) • LR (location register) • subsystems • RSS (radio subsystem): covers all radio aspects • NSS (network and switching subsystem): call forwarding, handover, switching • OSS (operation subsystem): management of the network ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM: overview OMC, EIR, AUC fixed network HLR GMSC NSS with OSS VLR MSC VLR MSC BSC BSC RSS ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM: elements and interfaces radio cell BSS MS MS Um radio cell MS RSS BTS BTS Abis BSC BSC A MSC MSC NSS VLR VLR signaling HLR ISDN, PSTN GMSC PDN IWF O OSS EIR AUC OMC ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM: system architecture radiosubsystem network and switching subsystem fixedpartner networks MS MS ISDNPSTN MSC Um Abis BTS BSC EIR BTS SS7 HLR VLR BTS ISDNPSTN BSC BTS MSC A IWF BSS PSPDNCSPDN ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Components MS (Mobile Station) BSS (Base Station Subsystem):consisting of BTS (Base Transceiver Station):sender and receiver BSC (Base Station Controller):controlling several transceivers Interfaces Um : radio interface Abis : standardized, open interface with 16 kbit/s user channels A: standardized, open interface with 64 kbit/s user channels System architecture: radio subsystem radiosubsystem network and switchingsubsystem MS MS Um Abis BTS MSC BSC BTS A BTS MSC BSC BTS BSS ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
System architecture: network and switching subsystem networksubsystem fixed partnernetworks • Components • MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center): • IWF (Interworking Functions) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) • PSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Net.) • CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Net.) • Databases • HLR (Home Location Register) • VLR (Visitor Location Register) • EIR (Equipment Identity Register) ISDNPSTN MSC EIR SS7 HLR VLR ISDNPSTN MSC IWF PSPDNCSPDN ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Radio subsystem • The Radio Subsystem (RSS) comprises the cellular mobile network up to the switching centers • Components • Base Station Subsystem (BSS): • Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio components including sender, receiver, antenna - if directed antennas are used one BTS can cover several cells • Base Station Controller (BSC): switching between BTSs, controlling BTSs, managing of network resources, mapping of radio channels (Um) onto terrestrial channels (A interface) • BSS = BSC + sum(BTS) + interconnection • Mobile Stations (MS) ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
cell GSM: cellular network segmentation of the area into cells • use of several carrier frequencies • not the same frequency in adjoining cells • cell sizes vary from some 100 m up to 35 km depending on user density, geography, transceiver power etc. • hexagonal shape of cells is idealized (cells overlap, shapes depend on geography) • if a mobile user changes cells handover of the connection to the neighbor cell possible radio coverage of the cell idealized shape of the cell ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller • Tasks of a BSS are distributed over BSC and BTS • BTS comprises radio specific functions • BSC is the switching center for radio channels ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
TE TA MT Um R S Mobile station • Terminal for the use of GSM services • A mobile station (MS) comprises several functional groups • MT (Mobile Terminal): • offers common functions used by all services the MS offers • corresponds to the network termination (NT) of an ISDN access • end-point of the radio interface (Um) • TA (Terminal Adapter): • terminal adaptation, hides radio specific characteristics (TE connects via modem, Bluetooth, IrDA etc. to MT) • TE (Terminal Equipment): • peripheral device of the MS, offers services to a user • Can be a headset, microphone, etc. • does not contain GSM specific functions • SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): • personalization of the mobile terminal, stores user parameters ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Network and switching subsystem • NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM • switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control • Components • Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC)controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC • Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay) • Home Location Register (HLR)central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs) • Visitor Location Register (VLR)local database for a subset of user data - data about all users currently visiting in the domain of the VLR ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Mobile Services Switching Center • The MSC (mobile switching center) plays a central role in GSM • switching functions • additional functions for mobility support • management of network resources • interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC) • integration of several databases • Functions of a MSC • specific functions for paging and call forwarding • termination of SS7 (signaling system no. 7) • mobility specific signaling • location registration and forwarding of location information • provision of new services (fax, data calls) • support of short message service (SMS) • generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Operation subsystem • The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation, management, and maintenance of all GSM subsystems • Components • Authentication Center (AUC) • generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR • authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system • Equipment Identity Register (EIR) • registers GSM mobile stations and user rights • stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized • Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) • different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
higher GSM frame structures 5 7 8 1 2 4 6 3 4.615 ms 546.5 µs 577 µs GSM Radio Interface - TDMA/FDMA 935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink frequency 890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) uplink time GSM TDMA frame GSM time-slot (normal burst) guard space guard space S user data tail tail user data S Training 1 3 1 57 bits 3 bits 57 bits 26 bits ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM hierarchy of frames hyperframe 0 1 2 ... 2045 2046 2047 3 h 28 min 53.76 s superframe 0 1 2 ... 48 49 50 6.12 s 0 1 ... 24 25 multiframe 0 1 ... 24 25 120 ms 0 1 2 ... 48 49 50 235.4 ms frame 0 1 ... 6 7 4.615 ms slot burst 577 µs ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM protocol layers for signaling Um Abis A MS BTS BSC MSC CM CM MM MM RR’ BTSM BSSAP RR BSSAP RR’ BTSM SS7 SS7 LAPDm LAPDm LAPD LAPD radio radio PCM PCM PCM PCM 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s / 2.048 Mbit/s ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
1: calling a GSM subscriber 2: forwarding call to GMSC 3: signal call setup to HLR 4, 5: request MSRN from VLR 6: forward responsible MSC to GMSC 7: forward call to current MSC 8, 9: get current status of MS 10, 11: paging of MS 12, 13: MS answers 14, 15: security checks 16, 17: set up connection PSTN Mobile Terminated Call 4 HLR VLR 5 8 9 3 6 14 15 7 calling station GMSC MSC 1 2 10 13 10 10 16 BSS BSS BSS 11 11 11 11 12 17 MS ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
1, 2: connection request 3, 4: security check 5-8: check resources (free circuit) 9-10: set up call PSTN Mobile Originated Call VLR 3 4 6 5 GMSC MSC 7 8 2 9 1 MS BSS 10 ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
MS MTC BTS MS MOC BTS paging request channel request channel request immediate assignment immediate assignment paging response service request authentication request authentication request authentication response authentication response ciphering command ciphering command ciphering complete ciphering complete setup setup call confirmed call confirmed assignment command assignment command assignment complete assignment complete alerting alerting connect connect connect acknowledge connect acknowledge data/speech exchange data/speech exchange MTC/MOC ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Handoffs • GSM uses mobile assisted hand-off (MAHO). Signal strength measurements are sent to the BS from the mobile. • The MSC decides when to do a handoff and it informs the new BS and the mobile. • When a mobile switches to a new BS it sends a series of shortened bursts to adjust its timing (giving the bS time to calculate it and send it) and allow the new BS to synchronize its receiver to the arrival time of the messages ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
4 types of handover 1 2 3 4 MS MS MS MS BTS BTS BTS BTS BSC BSC BSC MSC MSC ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Handover decision receive level BTSold receive level BTSold HO_MARGIN MS MS BTSold BTSnew ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Handover procedure MSC MS BTSold BSCold BSCnew BTSnew measurement report measurement result HO decision HO required HO request resource allocation ch. activation ch. activation ack HO request ack HO command HO command HO command HO access Link establishment HO complete HO complete clear command clear command clear complete clear complete ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Security in GSM • Security services • access control/authentication • user SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): secret PIN (personal identification number) • SIM network: challenge response method • confidentiality • voice and signaling encrypted on the wireless link (after successful authentication) • anonymity • temporary identity TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) • newly assigned at each new location update (LUP) • encrypted transmission • 3 algorithms specified in GSM • A3 for authentication (“secret”, open interface) • A5 for encryption (standardized) • A8 for key generation (“secret”, open interface) • “secret”: • A3 and A8 available via the Internet • network providers can use stronger mechanisms ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM - authentication SIM mobile network RAND Ki RAND RAND Ki 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit AC A3 A3 SIM SRES* 32 bit SRES 32 bit SRES SRES* =? SRES MSC SRES 32 bit Ki: individual subscriber authentication key SRES: signed response ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GSM - key generation and encryption MS with SIM mobile network (BTS) RAND Ki RAND RAND Ki AC SIM 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit A8 A8 cipher key Kc 64 bit Kc 64 bit SRES data encrypteddata data BTS MS A5 A5 ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Data services in GSM I • Data transmission standardized with only 9.6 kbit/s • advanced coding allows 14.4 kbit/s • not enough for Internet and multimedia applications • HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit Switched Data) • already standardized • bundling of several time-slots to get higher AIUR (Air Interface User Rate)(e.g., 57.6 kbit/s using 4 slots, 14.4 each) • advantage: ready to use, constant quality, simple • disadvantage: channels blocked for voice transmission ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
Data services in GSM II • GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) • packet switching • using free slots only if data packets ready to send (e.g., 115 kbit/s using 8 slots temporarily) • standardization 1998 • advantage: one step towards UMTS, more flexible • disadvantage: more investment needed • GPRS network elements • GSN (GPRS Support Nodes): GGSN and SGSN • GGSN (Gateway GSN) • interworking unit between GPRS and PDN (Packet Data Network) • SGSN (Serving GSN) • supports the MS (location, billing, security) • GR (GPRS Register) • user addresses ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GPRS quality of service ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
SGSN Gn PDN MS BSS SGSN GGSN Um Gb Gn Gi HLR/ GR MSC VLR EIR GPRS architecture and interfaces ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
GPRS protocol architecture MS BSS SGSN GGSN Um Gb Gn Gi apps. IP/X.25 IP/X.25 SNDCP SNDCP GTP GTP LLC LLC UDP/TCP UDP/TCP RLC RLC BSSGP BSSGP IP IP MAC MAC FR FR L1/L2 L1/L2 radio radio ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95 • The existing 12.5 MHz cellular bands are used to derive 10 different CDMA bands (1.25MHz per band). • The frequency reuse factor in CDMA is 1. The channel rate is 1.2288Mbps (actually chips not bits!). • Multipath fading is exploited in CDMA. It provides for space (path) diversity, RAKE receivers are used to combine the output of several received signals. Ofcourse fading does still occur on the individual signals but each signal is affected differently and so using several of them to make a decision improves the probability of obtaining a correct decision. This is referred to as multipath diversity combining. • The rake receiver at the mobile uses three correlators to receive three different signals that are spaced more than (>) .8micro secs (1 chip width) away. Signals spaced less than (<) .8microsecs cause interference and signals spaced exactly .8microsecs away will cause a maximum fade. A fourth receiver is used as a roving finger, it is used to detect new strong incoming signals. This process ensures that the RAKE receiver always uses the 3 strongest signals. At the BS all four correlators are used to receive signals (note BS use antenna diversity). ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95: Coding and Modulation • 64 bit Walsh codes (proving 64 bit orthogonal codes) are used to provide 64 channels within each frequency band. They are used for spreading in the downlink. In the uplink it is used to provide orthogonal modulation but not spreading to the full 1.2288 rate. • Besides the Walsh codes, 2 other codes are used in IS-95: • Long PN code:generated from a 42 bit shift register having 242-1=4.398 x 1012 different codes. A mask is used to overlay the codes, the mask differs from channel to channel.The chip rate is 1.2288Mcps. These codes are used for: • Data scrambling/encryption in the downlink • Data spreading and encryption in the up link • Short PN code: generated from a pair of 15 bit shift registers having 215 - 1 = 32,767 codes. These codes are used for synchronization in the down and up links and cell identification in the down link (each cell uses one of 512 possible offsets, adjacent cells must use different offsets). The chip rate is 1.2288Mcps (i.e., not used for spreading!) ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95: The Channels • The forward and reverse links are separated by 45MHz. • The downlink comprises the following logical channels: • Pilot channel (always uses Walsh code W0) • Paging channel(s) (use Walsh codes W1 - W7) • Sync channel (always uses Walsh code W32) • Traffic channels ( use Walsh codes W8 - W31 and W33 - W63) • The uplink comprises the following logical channels: • Access channel • Traffic channel ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95: Link Protocols • The link protocol can be summarised as follows: • Mobile acquires phase, timing, and signal strength via the pilot channel. • Mobile synchronizes via the sync channel. • Mobile gets system parameters via the paging channel. • Mobile and BS communicate over the traffic channels during a connection. • Mobile and BS communicate over the access and paging channels during system acquisition and paging. ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95: The different codes and their use • The forward (downlink) channels and reverse (uplink) channels use different spreading and scrambling processes. • The forward channels are spread using one of 64 orthogonal Walsh functions. This provides perfect separation between the channels (in the absence of multpath!). Then, to reduce interference between mobiles that use the same Walsh function in neighboring cells, all signals in a particular cell are scrambled using the short PN sequence (cell identification) in the radio modulator. For the paging and the traffic channels, the long PN sequence is used to scramble the signal before spreading. It can also be used for encryption on the traffic channel if the mask instead of being the ESN of the mobile is a private long code exchanged during the authentication procedure. • The reverse channels are spread using the long PN sequence. All 64 orthogonal Walsh functions are used to provide orthogonal modulation. The stream is then scrambled using the short PN sequence for cell identification purposes. ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95: Power Control I • It is of paramount importance for a CDMA system. • In order to have max. efficiency, the power received at the BS from all the mobiles must be nearly equal. • If a terminal’s power is too low, then many bit errors will occur. • If a terminal’s power is too high , the level of interference will go up. • Closed loop power control at the terminals: power control information is sent to the terminal from the BS . Puncturing is used, 2 data symbols are replaced by one power control symbol (double the power). This bit either indicates a transition up or a transition down in power in 1db increments. The power bit is sent 16 times per 20ms frame (every 1.25ms)! (Pclosed) ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95: Power Control II • Open loop power control at the terminals:. The mobile senses the strength of the pilot signal and can adjust its power based upon that. If signal is very strong, the assumption can be made that the mobile is very close to BS and the power should be dropped. The mobile uses Ptarget sent in the access param. msg.(Popen) • The transmitted power at the terminal in units of dBm is: Ptran=Popen+Pclosed • Open loop power control at the BS: the BS decreases its power level gradually and waits to hear from the mobile what the frame error rate (FER) is (power measurement report). If high then it increases its power level. ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95: Handoffs I • CDMA supports two types of handoffs: • hard handoff • soft handoff A hard handoff is a break before make scenario, where prob. of dropping a call is higher. A soft handoff is a make before break scenario. • The mobile assists in the handoff process and therefore it is referred to as Mobile Assisted Hand Off (MAHO). It reports signal measurements to the BS. The roving finger (or searcher) of the RAKE receiver is used to measure the pilot signals of neighboring BSs (neighbor list messages sent to terminals periodically). During call set-up a mobile is given a list of handoff thresholds and a list of likely new cells. The mobile keeps track of those cells that fall above the threshold and sends this information to the MSC. ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.
IS 95: Handoffs II • The mobile and the MSC classify the neighboring BSs to keep track of the handoff process (based upon data received from the mobile, the MSC constantly re-classifies BSs with regard to the mobile): • active list: contains BSs currently used for communication (contains at least one BS) • candidate list: contains list of BSs that could be used for communication based upon current signal strength measurements • neighbor list: contains a list of BSs that could soon be promoted to candidate list • remaining list: all other BSs that do not qualify • The MSC, when it moves a BS from the candidate list into the active list, will direct that BS to serve the terminal. It informs both the new BS and the mobile and assigns a forward channel number (Walsh code) for communication (on condition there is one available!). ICS 243E - Ch4. Wireless Telecomm. Sys.