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Korea’s Green Growth Controversy and SD Policies of Seoul. 2012. 4. Wang-Jin Seo. Contents. Sustainable Development (SD) and. Green Growth in Korea. Green Growth Controversy in Korea. Seoul’s Challenges toward SD. Seoul’s Climate Change Action. Seoul’s Sustainable Energy Action:.

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slide1

Korea’s Green Growth Controversy

and SD Policies of Seoul

2012. 4

Wang-Jin Seo

slide2

Contents

Sustainable Development (SD) and

Green Growth in Korea

Green Growth Controversy in Korea

Seoul’s Challenges toward SD

Seoul’s Climate Change Action

Seoul’s Sustainable Energy Action:

“Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant”

from sd to green growth in korea
From SD to Green Growth in Korea
  • Participation into the UNCED in Rio (1992)
  • Participation into UNCSD annually since 1993
  • Establishment of ‘Local Agenda 21’ by Local Governments in accordance with the ‘Agenda 21’ recommendations
  • President Kim Dae-jung announced ‘Sustainable Development’ as the basis of national governance (2000)
  • ‘Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD)’ in which government, businesses and civil groups participate organized (2000)
from sd to green growth in korea1
From SD to Green Growth in Korea

President Roh Moo-hyun reorganized PCSD focusing on resolution of social and environmental conflicts (2003)

Establishment of the Framework Act on Sustainable Development (2007)

President Lee Myung-bak from Grand National Party, a conservative party won presidential election in 2007

Lee Myung-bak administration declared ‘Low Carbon, Green Growth’ as a new vision and strategy for realization of ‘Sustainable Development’ (2008)

5

slide6

VISION

비전

One of the World’s Top 7 Green Superpowers by 2020

(top 5 by 2050)

Climate change adaptation

and energy independence

Creation of new growth engine

4

1

8

5

9

2

10

3

7

6

Infrastructure development

for green economy

Efficient greenhouse

gas reduction

Green innovation

in daily lives

Realization of global green growth leader

Construction of green land & transportation

Vision of Low-carbon Green Growth

Improvement of

quality of life

Green technology development

Top Three Strategies and Top 10 Policy Directions

Fostering green industry

Promotion of energy independence

Advancement of

industrial structure

Improvement of climate change adaptation capacity

slide7

1

Afforesting

sea forest development

Support on forest

recovery in North Korea

Top 5 Policy Directions and Promotion Plans

Efficient greenhouse gas reduction

Nation’s GHG reduction goal setting and management

Carbon information disclosure and management

  • (’09) Mid-term goal setting→(’10~)Goal management
  • GHG information management system

GHG

Financial investment

plan(KRW trillion)

Job creation

(x 10,000 jobs)

Growth rate

6.5%

2.5

  • Experts such as greenhouse gas inspection & certification expert
  • green consultant

2.1

7.8

1.0

’09~’13

‘09

’10~ ‘11

’12~‘13

Promotion of carbon cycle

(Carbon-3R) and carbon sink

  • North Korea’s afforestation area: (’09)  50,000 ha (’13)
  • Carbon storage of the forest: (’09)1,452  (’13)1,613 million tCO2
enhancing energy independence
Enhancing Energy independence

Energy efficiency and

demand side management

Improvement of reliability and expansion of nuclear power plant

2

wind power

generation

solar thermal green home

fuel cell

3.6%

Promotion of industrialization of

new & renewable energy

  • New & renewable energy use rate: (’09)2.%,  (’13)3.8%
  • Green Home Project : 140,000 households(2013)→1M households (2020)
  • Energy Town Project: 1 (2009)  14 towns (2020)
  • Elimination of low-efficiency equipment:
  • No more incandescent lamp by 2013
  • Total energy use management system(’10)
  • Expansion of intelligent electricity network:
  • Designation of test-bed city (2011)

Financial investment

plan (KRW trillion)

Job creation

(x 10,000 jobs)

  • Waste resources energy development engineers
  • nuclear power generation engineers
  • resources development & support engineers

Growth rate

6.5

5.6

20.8

2.8

’09~’13

‘09

’10~ ‘11

’12~‘13

Expansion of overseas resources development

  • Oil & gas self-development rates
  • : 7.4% (2009)  20% (2013)
  • Export of the first nuclear power plant during
  • the project period (1 or 2 plant(s) or more)
  • Development of nuclear power technology (2012)
improvement of climate change adaptation capacity
Improvement of climate change adaptation capacity

The Four Major Rivers

Restoration Project

  • The amount of water resources secured :(’09)186  (’13)200billion m2
  • Quality of four major rivers: 2nd grade by 2012

3

improvement of

water quality

securing

sufficient water

Development of climate change monitoring & prediction technique

20.4%

Establishment of climate-friendly health management & food production system

Development of marine management

& preliminary disaster prevention system

  • Evaluation of coastal vulnerability: (’09) (’13)800km2
  • Disaster response capability: (’09)40%  (’13)60%

use of marine energy

disaster prevention

Financial investment

plan (KRW trillion)

Job creation

(x 10,000 jobs)

21.3

Growth rate

  • Climate change adaptation
  • expertswater industry engineers
  • Climate change prediction & monitoring capacity:(’09)40% (’13)80%

10.1

50.6

4.8

’09~’13

‘09

’10~‘11

’12~‘13

Improvement of the soundness of forest ecosystem

  • National forest resources: 862
  • million (2009)  953 million㎥ (2013)
  • Health management strategy (2009)
  • Environment-friendly agricultural products: 4.5% (2009)  10% (2013)
development of green technology as a growth engine
Development of green technology as a growth engine

Expansion of green R&D

investments

  • Increase of green technology R&D investments: (2009) 16% (2013) 20%

Commercialization of core green technologies

  • Commercialization of LED, hybrid vehicle, advanced light-water reactor and fuel cell by 2012

4

5.1%

Expansion of green technology & infrastructure

Improvement of Green IT:

Green of IT, Green by IT

  • Development & export of
  • the world’s top three green
  • IT products (Green PC, TV
  • and Server) (2012)

Financial investment

plan (KRW trillion)

Job creation

(x 10,000 jobs)

  • Plant engineering, technology commercialization & manufacturing, facilities & construction workers

5.0

Growth rate

4.3

9.4

2.0

’09~’13

‘09

’10~‘11

’12~‘13

“Green TCS* System”

Fostering green technology experts and international cooperation

  • Establishment of world-class
  • green technology information system
  • Green technology engineers: 20,000 (2009)
  •  37,000 engineers (2013)
  • Establishment of East Asia Green
  • Technology Standard Council (2013)

*TCS: Testing, Certification, Standard

promotion and fostering of green industry
Promotion and fostering of green industry

Development of resources-recycling

economy & promotion of urban mining

Green partnership between enterprises

– improvement of green capacity for small & mid-size enterprises

Greening core industries

and expansion of green business

5

GreenPartner

6.7%

Expansion of green

industrial complexes

  • No. of green industry complexes: 5(2009)  10(2013)(Waste recycling, high-efficiency facilities & equipment, IT-based management system, etc.)
  • No. of businesses participating in the
  • green partnership : 685(2009)  1,500(2013)

Financial investment

plan (KRW trillion)

Job creation

(x 10,000 jobs)

  • Green diagnosis consultant
  • green growth expert for small & mid-sized enterprise

Growth rate

2.0

1.8

4.9

0.8

’09~’13

‘09

’10~‘11

’12~‘13

  • Greening core nine industries (petrochemical, steel, etc.)
  • Percentage of green export: 10% (2009)  15% (2013)
  • Resource recycling rates: 15% (2009)  17% (2013)
  • Support on urban mining-related R&D:

KRW 9 billion (2009)  KRW 37.5 billion (2013)

low carbon green growth and nuclear power renaissance
Low-carbon Green Growth and Nuclear Power Renaissance
  • Expansion of nuclear power generations
  • Percentage of nuclear power among total electricity:

35.5%(2007)  59.0%(2030)

nuclear power dependent structure
Nuclear power-dependent structure
  • Aggressive nuclear power expansion policy
  • A total of 21 nuclear reactors in operation (2011)
  • 13 reactors to be constructed additionally by 2024
  • Highest nuclear power density: 182.2kW/km2

(Japan: 127.2kW/km2)

  • Concentration of power generation facility investments in nuclear power plants
ring of nuclear and korea
Ring of Nuclear and Korea
  • No. of nuclear reactors in China: 228 (13: In operation, 27: Under construction, 188: Under review for additional construction)
  • No. of nuclear reactors in Japan: 69 (construction plan included)
the four rivers project
The Four Rivers Project
  • Goals
  • To secure abundant water resources against potential water scarcity;
  • To implement a comprehensive flood control system;
  • To improve water quality and restore the ecosystems; and
  • To create multi-use open spaces for People
  • Project scopes
  • Total 170 construction zones
  • 16 movable weirs
  • Dredging : total 450 million m3
slide24

98

250

46

(1960)

(1980)

(1990)

(2010)

(1975)

(1980)

(1990)

(2010)

(1960)

(1980)

(2000)

(2010)

City of Seoul is

Capital of Korea for 600 years ; political, economic and cultural center

Facing environmental problems caused by rapid urbanization such as increasing population, houses, and cars

Affected by climate change challenges caused by intensifying global warming

1,062

1044

297

119

192

836

240

20.6

8.5

Population (10K)

No. of houses (10K)

No. of registered cars (10K)

slide25

Air Quality

Seoul is surrounded by high mountains – difficult to diffuse air

Affected by various air polluting factors such as increasing number of cars and yellow dust phenomenon

Lower air pollution by implementing projects such as increasing use of clean fuel and promoting low pollution for diesel cars

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO)level reached advanced nations’ level

Particulate matter (PM10) level is higher than that of advanced nations

Yellow Dust

No. of monitored days

PM10(㎍/㎥)

2,941

㎍/㎥

15

12

Max. Concentration

( ㎍/㎥)

12

11

11

9

1354

㎍/㎥

1157

㎍/㎥

6

5

1,355

㎍/㎥

1,059

㎍/㎥

623

㎍/㎥

511

㎍/㎥

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

25

25

slide26

Green Park

Green axis and forests are destroyed in the process of urbanization – house and road construction

Expanded green space by increasing parks and green space continuously and conserving forests

Not enough green parks in community area

Park space per capita

Parks in Seoul (2009)

㎡/capita

Other Parks

18.61㎢

(11%)

29.7

30

24.5

24.2

Neighborhood

Parks

45.52㎢

(27%)

20

16.05

Parks in Seoul

169.05㎢

Natural Parks

104.92㎢

(62%)

10.4

10.3

10

4.5

4.5

0

Toronto

Berlin

London

Seoul

Paris

New

York

Tokyo

Beijing

26

26

slide27

Greenhouse Gases

GHG Emissions (’08) :

Emissions in Seoul is 50,383K tonCO2e

(1990 baseline year: emission44,983K tonCO2e),

5,400K tonCO2e (12.0%) increase compared to 1990 level

수송

(24.9%)

가정·상업

(56.7%)

<GHG Emissions by Sector(`08)>

Buildings and transportation account for more than 80% of GHG emissions in Seoul – Building: 61.4%, Transportation:21.4%, Industry:10.8%, Waste:6.4%

* Buildings (68.2%) and transportation (23.6%) account for over 90% of annual energy consumption (45,761K ton CO2e)

slide29

Long term Climate Change & GHG Reduction Goals

Set climate change visions for 2030 [Eco-Friendly Energy Declaration(‘07.4)set goals for2020]

Announced 2030 Green Design Seoul(‘09.7)

Set aggressive GHG reduction goals, similar to those of Annex 1 countries

Provide visions for low carbon, low energy city, responding to climate change

Seoul GHG reduction goal: 40% reduction by 2030(1990baseline year)

Energy consumption: 20% reduction by 2030(2000baseline year)

Renewable energy use: 20%increase by 2030

Reduce GHG emissions

Reduce energy consumption

Increaserenewable energy use

15%

20%

20%

25%

40%

10%

0.6%

2020

2030

2020

2030

2004

2020

2030

1990

Baseline yr

2000

Baseline yr

29

slide30

Set Climate Change Ordinance(‘08.9)

Stipulate Seoul’s GHG reduction goals

Apply Seoul Green Architecture Standard

Lay foundation for management of Climate Change Fund

※ First regulation to be set in Korea without higher law

  • Climate Change Fund / Secured financing for stronger public support

Increase financing: 64.8billion KRW (’09) ⇒ 93 billion KRW(’11)

Expand beneficiary: Grant loans to GHG reduction and renewable energy projects

Basic ground for implementation of comprehensive measures – climate change, energy, and transportation demand management

30

slide31

Set ground for climate change monitoring

  • Enhance capacity to address climate change

AWS

Automate weather monitoring system(’09. 1) :

Install 26 AWS (Automatic Weather System)

Produce Seoul Climate Change Map(’06~ ’08)

Use as basic data to establish climate change plans and eco-friendly urban management policies

Create emissions database – Seoul GHG inventory (’09)

Update database & establish “GHG management system” (’11.5)

  • Build Climate Change R&D Center
  • (Seoul Development Institute,’09. 1)

Enhance climate change and energy related research,

improve policy development capacity

31

slide32

Implementation directions of climate change action plans

Improve building energy efficiency, promote energy saving and eco-friendly design & maintenance

Building

Improve public transportation system,

deliver eco-friendly green cars, install bicycle facilities

Transportation

Mitigation

Save energy, use renewable energy,

increase clean fuel and collective energy supply

Energy

Reduce waste generation, encourage recycling,

co-use resource recovery facility

Waste

Improving Climate

Greening projects, stream & ecosystem restoration projects

Prepare for heat wave and tropical night phenomenon, prevent contagious diseases

Public

Healthcare

Adaptation

Water Management

Water quantity and quality management, rainwater recycling

Reinforce facilities to prepare for torrential rainfalls,

prevent flooding

Flood Control

Citizen Participation

Environmental education at homes & schools, encourage citizen participation programs – Eco-mileage, CAP, etc.

Citizen Participation

slide34

Why ‘Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant’?

Low self-sufficiency rates (3.3%) Dramatic increase in demand for electricity

Improvement of energy security to be prepared against electricity crisis

Reduction of energy consumption

as much as

the amount of power produced by each nuclear power reactor through decrease in demand for energy and expansion of energy production

Increase in citizens’ anxiety after Fukushima’s nuclear nightmare

Necessary to prevent possible nuclear power accidents completely

Necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Severe climate changes such as global warming

vision
Vision

‘Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant’ Vision

Establishment of the ground

for energy independence

targeting the world climate environmental capital

- Power self-sufficiency rates: 10% (2014)  25% (2020)

2014

10%

2020

25%

‘Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant’

Reduction of 2 million TOE by 2014

Goal

Electricity

750,000 TOE (8,720GWh)

Petroleum and city gas

1,250,000 TOE

* The annual power generation of Yeonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 5

(the biggest nuclear power reactor in Korea, 1GWh): 8,672GWh

slide36

Decrease in

energy demand

Energy production

610,000 TOE

1,390,000 TOE

Electricity: 260,000 TOE

(3,023GWh))

Heat: 350,000 TOE

Elec.: 490,000 TOE

(5,697GWh)

Petroleum:

350,000 TOE

City gas:

550,000 TOE

Policies(77projects in six fields)

promotion building energy efficiency

establishing high-efficiency transportation system

Expansion of new & renewable energy production

creation of energy industry-related jobs

restructure of urban space into energy-saving space

creation of energy-saving citizens culture

Goal

Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant

slide37

01

Construction of ‘Sunlight City (260MW)’

(the city itself is a huge PV power generation plant)

Establishment and operation of energy foundation

04

03

05

Realization of ‘Smart Lighting City’ using LED (distribution of 7 million LED lights)

Improvement of energy efficiency in residence, building and schools

100,000 people

participating

in the car-sharing program

Establishment of ‘2030 Urban Master

Plan’ for construction of energy-

efficient urban space

Strict design standards

such as limit on energy

consumption for new buildings

Creation of 44,000

energy industry-related jobs

10

07

08

06

02

Construction of ‘Distributed

Power System (320MW)’

through development of

hydrogen fuel cell

Creation of energy-saving citizens’ culture

09

Top 10

‘Shut Down

One Nuclear Power Plant’ projects

slide38

“We build a city which itself is a huge PV power generation plant.” – Sunlight City

Expansion of the number of the PV

Sunlight Power Generation Plants

: 230MW by 2014

- 1,600 plants (ex: Public organizations, schools, etc.) : 130MW

- 6,500 plants (ex: Residence, office buildings, etc.) : 100MW

Construction of ‘Nanum Power Plant’ to go with

a local society : 30MW by 2014 (26 plants in total)

- Formation of local community or cooperatives

- Use of the revenue on energy welfare

Construction of energy self-sufficiency village

: 25 villages by 2014

  • Seongdaegol Village (Dongjak-gu),
  • Seongmisan Village (Mapo-gu),
  • Seowon Village (Gangdong-gu), etc

Production and use of ‘Seoul Sunlight Map’

- Survey on PV potential and installation area

Introduction of ‘Seoul Power Generation Financial Aid System’ to promote the distribution of small PV installations

slide39

“We dramatically enhance building energy efficiency.”

* 2012 -→ 2014

BRP in high-energy-consumption

mid-size and large buildings:

700  1,221 buildings

Improvement of old and

outdated public facilities

Construction of low-carbon green schools

30 schools

1,221 building

842 buildings

700 building

10 schools

262 buildings

BRP targeting 10,000 detached houses

BRP (Municipal social welfare facilities)

Eco-School (elementary, middle and high) Project

10,000 houses

59 facilities (completed 100%)

60 schools

30 facilities

30 schools

2,500 houses

Home-visit energy diagnosis service: 50,000 households, 1,500 small buildings)

X 50,000

X 1,500

Improvement of energy-saving systems such as insulated windows, LED lighting and heating & cooling system

slide40

“ We improve energy-saving systems

such as insulated windows, LED lighting and

heating & cooling system.”

Expansion of the LED distribution in civil sector

Construction of ‘Smart Lighting City’ through

a perfect harmony between IT and lighting

- Development of integrated outdoor lighting control system (ON-OFF, Dimming)

- Establishment of ‘Outdoor Lighting Brightness

Standards (2013)’:

Underground parking lots of apartments and large commercial buildings: 2 million units

Multipurpose facilities such as discount stores and departments stores: 5 million units

LED Hall: Najin Store (2012 – 2015)

Expansion of the LED distribution in publicsector : 815,000 units by 2014

Replacement of lighting sources

(signboard, security lamp, street lamp, etc.)

with high-efficiency ones

Public buildings and road

: 309,000 units

Subway station (completed 100%)

: 450,000 units

Underground mall (completed 100%)

: 16,000 units

Replacement of old street lamps with energy-saving lamps: 140,000

16,500 LED security lamps in residence areas

The number of LED and solar cell-used signboards: 3,000 annually

- Expansion of the percentage of LED lighting

For new buildings: 30-40% (2011)  100% (2014)

Early distribution of LED lights by attracting private investments (investment first, revenue later) through LED Association

slide41

“We build environment-friendly,

high-efficiency transportation system.”

Promotion of ‘Weekly No Driving Day’ campaign in large buildings

: 1,380 buildings (2012)  6,900 (2014)

- 50% of the buildings which are subject to traffic

occurrence charges (9% at present)

Promotion of car-sharing program

: 25,000 people (500 cars) (2012)

 100,000 people (2,000 cars)

- Priority on public parking lot ticket

: 200 lots (2012)  1,200 lots (2014)

- Operation of car-sharing information website and electric vehicle grant, etc.

* Reduction of KRW 2,038,000 annually

if a car-sharing program is used

(SONATA 2.0 model / 10 years)

Restriction on car use : Reduction of traffic volume

: 8,260,000 cars (2009)  7,760,000 cars (2014)

- Increase in traffic occurrence charges (KRW

350  1,000), increase in traffic occurrence

indexes, expansion of local governor’s

coordination rights (100%  200%),Increase in

parking fee in urban & commercial area parking

lots (2013)

- Expansion and increase in congestion charges

Purchase

Passenger Car

Maintenance

Possession

2,850

2,100

1,908

KRW6,850,000

Basic Rate

Annual Rate

Car Sharing

110

4,701

KRW 4,812,000

Shift of perception from ‘possession’ to ‘use’ through the introduction of car-sharing program

slide42

Economic benefits: KRW 2.1 trillion

  • Petroleum import substitution: 15.6 million bl.
  • * Total project cost (KRW 3.4 trillion) will be fully collected by 2015.

Effects

Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

: 7,130,000 CO2

- 7,130km2afforestation effect: 1,584 times greater than Yeouido (4.5km)

Energy savings

:2 million TOE

2010

3.3%

2014

10%

Job creation: 44,000 jobs

Improvement of power self-sufficiency rates: 10% by 2014

slide43

One nuclear reactor will be shut down by 2014

2012

2013

2014

One nuclear reactor annually since 2015

2015

2016