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Faculty . The Evolution of Faculty As a Career. Faculty . Influence of German universities Had a great impact on society Disinterested pursuit of knowledge through original investigation Freedom to teach/freedom to learn/applied-pure

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The Evolution of Faculty

As a Career

  • Influence of German universities
    • Had a great impact on society
    • Disinterested pursuit of knowledge through original investigation
    • Freedom to teach/freedom to learn/applied-pure
    • University as instrument of the state to serve the common good
    • Awarded doctorate
      • Was a career builder to have a German degree
  • John Hopkins & Univ. of Chicago – follow German model from the beginnings
  • University of Chicago
    • Ceaseless investigation of every realm of knowledge
    • Accessibility to university/communications between university and outside world
      • William Rainey Harper 1892: 120 faculty, 27 discipline, 594 students/ ½ grad students/ faculty promotion/ president as academic leader

Opens as a University (Harvard opened as a college)

    • Rockefeller by 1916: 8 m for land buildings, 35 m endowment
  • University of Chicago cont.
    • 1908: 120 specialized national learned societies
    • University press begins
    • 1945: 86 journals in history
  • End of serious transformation for faculty
  • Academic Freedom
    • Faculty Dismissal
      • By politicians
      • Religious tests
    • German concept
      • Faculty could teach/research any subject
      • Students free to learn…any course no exams until graduation
    • Plato
      • Free to follow any argument wherever it might lead; concept is old
    • Leadership: Dunster at Harvard, Cutler at Yale
    • 1840s religious orthodoxy replaced by political orthodoxy

Sears Tower in Chicago

  • Political issue
    • Slavery as political issue
    • 1880s institutions banned teaching of evolution
      • Princeton, Williams, Amherst
    • 1900 conflicts over labor union
  • Faculty views limited by institutional philosophy
  • Jefferson @ Univ. of Virginia “..we are not afraid to follow truth where ever it may lead, nor to tolerate error so long as reason is left to combat it.”
    • 1st institution to give faculty lifetime appointments as protection against unpopular ideas
  • Jefferson’s views not followed
    • Pres. Andrews @ Brown supported silver standard, his board supported gold standard; he was out
    • Prof. Ross @ Stanford advocated municipal ownership of railroads
    • Harper @ Chicago fired Prof. Bemis critical of RR owners


  • Conflict between faculty and lay boards – conflict b/w intellectual freedom and donors
    • Lay boards came about in part to replace influence of religious orthodoxy
    • Conflict with donors and influence of donors over policy
  • College tradition: Andrew White at Cornell 1866
    • “in an instrument of learning, facility and power in imparting truth are even more necessary than in discovering it.”
  • University tradition: Harper at Chicago 1892
    • “It is proposed in this institution to make the work of investigation primary, the work of giving instruction secondary.”
    • Transformation of service/knowledge in service to the state for the common good. Land grant concept in action. Education no longer isolated.
  • Progressivism: Realization of the changing nature of the nation as it industrializes; desire to confront issues
    • Univ. of VA adds Dept. of forestry, Univ. of IL- 100,000 contact per year about agriculture, Univ. of KS- prairie dog eradication
  • Progressivism Cont.
    • Ceaseless investigation of every topic likely offends someone, particularly those who believe all the truth is known.
    • Ely, Wisconsin, Marxist socialist
      • “We cannot for a moment believe that knowledge had reached its final goal or that the present condition of society is perfect…we feel that we would be unworthy of the positions we hold if we did not believe in progress in all departments of knowledge.” Compare to Yale Report
      • If we knew what we were doing we would not call it research- Einstein
    • Conflict: Board, public, donors, unconstrained faculty freedom
      • Examples?
    • 2 kinds of HE:
      • Truth defined and limited by founding principles
      • No constraint on pursuit of truth/ who defends?
  • Academic freedom not in 1918 dictionary
  • 1901 American Economic Association
    • Ross @ Stanford
    • 1st review of firing/others follow
  • John Dewey calls meeting of professional associations
    • Protect free inquiry
    • 867 from 60 institutions
    • Result: 1915 American Association of Univ. Professors
      • Goals: Tenure to protect jobs & assure standards
  • American Association of University Professors (AAUP)
    • Opposition: trade union? Tenure unpopular
    • Principles
      • Free to come to conclusions unaffected by factors irrelevant to the validity of that knowledge * Obligation of faculty is to society, not board * Board appoints but does not employ; termination judgment of peers * Broadcast fruits of ideas inside and outside of academe but had duty of care * Power- threat of censure; principles have come to be adapted
      • Challenges to Principles: WWI limit freedom during war; 1930s loyalty oaths
  • Faculty dismissed if:
    • German background, did not support US
    • Encouraged others to avoid draft
  • Loyalty oaths
    • Common in 1930s; AAUP supported
    • After WWII CA required loyalty oath
    • HE System further required non communist pledge
    • 39 Berkeley faculty refused to sign; fired; state court supports faculty
    • In time: Judged by quality of work, not association
  • Proprietary schools
    • Dealt with professions or occupations that had immediate employability
    • 1910: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching concluded there were good and bad schools
      • Led to implementation of standards and reformed medical school