Overview of Bioinformatics. BY DR.C. AMRUTHAVALLI HOD OF BIOINFORMATICS CIST UNIVERSITY OF MYSORE. Bioinformatics is the field of science in which molecular biology, statistics, computer science, and information technology merge into a single discipline.
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HOD OF BIOINFORMATICS
UNIVERSITY OF MYSORE
Bioinformatics is the field of science in which molecular biology, statistics, computer science, and information technology merge into a single discipline.
Bioinformatics is associated typically with massive databases of gene and protein sequence and structure/function information databases.
• What is the information contained in a biological sequence?
• How can we analyze it to gain knowledge?
• Does it contain any functional clues?
I cloned a gene - is it a known gene?
Does the sequence match? Is the sequence any good?
Does it look like anything else in the database?
Which family does it belong to?
How can I find more family members?
I have an orphan receptor, how can I find its ligand?
The gene Iím interested in was found in another
organism, but not mine. How can I look for it?
I have linkage to a specific region on chromosome x,
how do I find genes in that region?
The potential of Bioinformatics in the identification of useful genes leading to the development of new gene products, drug discovery and drug development has led to a paradigm shift in biology and biotechnology-these fields are becoming more & more computationally intensive. The new paradigm, now emerging, is that all the genes will be known "in the sense of being resident in database available electronically", and the starting point of biological investigation will be theoretical and a scientist will begin with a theoretical conjecture and only then turning to experiment to follow or test the hypothesis. With a much deep understanding of the biological processes at the molecular level, the Bioinformatics scientist have developed new techniques to analyse genes on an industrial scale resulting in a new area of science known as 'Genomics'.
The Bioinformatics industry has grown to keep up with the information explosion, growing at 25-50% a year. In 2000, the US market Research company Oscar Gruss estimated that the value of the Bioinformatics industry would touch $5 billion. Now it s demand for individuals capable of doing bioinformatics is soaring. Industry's demand for scientists with skills in Bioinformatics far exceeds the supply of qualified specialists in the field, Seems likely that this figure will be reached within the coming year. Therefore, companies are developing methods of spotting potential Bioinformatics experts and then training them on the job.
There are three important sub-disciplines within bioinformatics involving computational biology:
The development of new algorithms and statistics with which to assess relationships among members of large data sets
The analysis and interpretation of various types of data including nucleotide and amino acid sequences, protein domains, and protein structures and
The development and implementation of tools that enable efficient access and management of different types of information
• Genome sequencing of – Bacteria, viruses – Animals– Plants
• Comparative genomics
• Annotation and Mapping
• Gene Discovery
Functional Genomics (Gene Expression and Regulation):
• Control Regions
– Feedback loops
• Environmental Effects
• Diseased States
• Chemical Consequences
– Regional, ethnic variations
– Inheritance patterns
– Radiological/ecological modifications
• Therapeutic target recognition
• Correlation of drug and expression effects
• Pathway Effects
• Protein Profiling
– Alternate splice variants
– Orphan genes
– Cryptic introns
• Gene Therapy
• Experimental Protein structures
– Apo state
– Holo state
– Structural modifications
• Membrane Proteins
• Homology Modelling
• Comparative Modelling
Drug and Vaccine Design:
• Screening Natural Products – Plants, – Fungi
• In silico modifications of ligands
• Vaccine design and delivery
With the confluence of biology and computer science, the computer applications of molecular biology are drawing a greater attention among the life science researchers and scientists these days. As it becomes imperative for biologists to seek the help of information technology professionals to accomplish the ever growing computational requirements of a host of exciting and needy biological problems, the synergy between modern biology and computer science is to blossum in the days to come. Thus the research scope for all the mathematical techniques and algorithms coupled with software programming languages, software development and deployment tools are to get a real boost. In addition, information technologies such as databases, middleware, graphical user interface(GUI) design, distributed object computing, storage area networks (SAN), data compression, network and communication and remote management are all set to play a very critical role in taking forward the goals for which the Bioinformatics field came into existence.
The genomics revolution has transformed the landscape of drug discovery. DNA and protein sequences are yielding a host of new therapeutic targets and an enormous amount of associated information. The challenges in the genomics arena are to securely and reliably manage and analyze huge quantities of sequence and associated data, and to extract useful information from that data
Detailed study of the three dimensional molecular structure of DNA, proteins, and other biological compounds can be critical to understanding their function and to designing therapeutics to control their effects. Modeling, simulation, and other computational techniques to predict and analyze this structure are essential components in today's discovery research