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Krzysztof Krajewski Jagiellonian University Department of Criminology Krakow - Poland. Gaps in the knowledge base – evidence in the criminal justice system and its implementation in practice Conference Identifying Europe’s information needs for effective drug policy Lisbon, 6 – 8 May, 2009.

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krzysztof krajewski jagiellonian university department of criminology krakow poland

Krzysztof Krajewski Jagiellonian University Department of Criminology Krakow - Poland

Gaps in the knowledge base – evidence in the criminal justice system and its implementation in practice

Conference

Identifying Europe’s information needs for effective drug policy

Lisbon, 6 – 8 May, 2009

basic question
Basic question

To evaluate drug policies in any country, it is important to have information on three aspects of these policies:

  • to what extent criminal law and criminal justice interventions are directed towards supply of drugs and to what extent towards demand for drugs;
  • to what extent criminal law and criminal justice interventions regarding demand constitute either purely repressive interventions, or involve also alternative measures intended to divert offending drug users to the treatment system;
  • what are the reasons for eventual different patterns;
slide3

Indexed trends in reports for drug-related offences by broad type of offence in the EU Member States 2002–07Source: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, Figure DLO-1

slide4
Offences type in reports for drug law offences in EuropeSource: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, Figure DLO-2
slide5
Proportion of cannabis related offences in reports for drug law offencesSource: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, Table DLO-3
slide6

Indexed trends in reports for drug law offences by type of drug in the EU Member States 2002–07Source: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, Figure DLO-3

slide7

Indexed trends in reports for drug law offences related to drug use or possession for use in the EU Member States 2002–07Source: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, Figure DLO-4

selection mechanisms in the criminal justice system funnel model
Selection mechanisms in the criminal justice system:„funnel model”

Input: number of really committed offences

Output:number of reported (registered) offences

Output: number of prosecutions

Output: number of convictions

Output: number of people serving prison term

tasks for the future
Tasks for the future
  • it may be worth effort to learn more about and to attempt to explain significant differences in outcomes of the selection mechanism and criminal justice interventions between European countries;
  • however, this may be difficult without certain data being available throughout Europe on the national level;
  • targeted data collection and specific research projects may be necessary here;
slide10

Drug offences rates in European countries (2007)Rates per 100 th. inhabitantsSource: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, author’s own calculations

slide11

Drug use related offences rates in European countries (2007)Rates per 100 th. inhabitantsSource: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, author’s own calculations

slide12

Drug supply related offences rates in European countries (2007)Rates per 100 th. inhabitantsSource: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, author’s own calculations

slide13

Drug offences rates in European countries (2007)- ranking according to the overall rateRates per 100 th. inhabitantsSource: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, author’s own calculations

slide14

Drug offences rates in European countries (2007)- ranking according to the use related offences rateRates per 100 th. inhabitantsSource: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, author’s own calculations

slide15

Drug offences rates in European countries (2007)- ranking according to the supply related offences ratesRates per 100 th. inhabitantsSource: EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2009, author’s own calculations

preliminary conclusions
Preliminary conclusions
  • law enforcement effort in most countries seems to concentrate on the use related offences;
  • this is especially visible in some countries ranked quite low on supply related offences, but being champions in use related offences rates, and because of this also champions in general drug offences rates;
  • more precise knowledge is highly desirable about reasons for this pattern;
  • this may be of great importance for evaluating impact of the law enforcement effort on various aspects of the drug problem;
slide17

Drug offences rates and conviction rates for drug offencesin European countries (2003)Rates per 100 th. inhabitantsSource: European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics, Third Edition

slide18

Drug offences rates and convictions rates for drug trafficking offencesin European countries (2003)Rates per 100 th. inhabitantsSource: European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics, Third Edition

preliminary conclusions1
Preliminary conclusions
  • attrition rate (difference between registered offences rate and convictions rate) seems to be huge in case of some countries;
  • this suggests that many registered drug offences are never prosecuted, and it never comes to conviction for them;
  • as this rate seems to be generally lower in case of supply related offences, it may mean that use related cases are mostly responsible for that phenomenon;
  • it is highly desirable to know why is it so: are these cases just dropped off for some reasons, or are they diverted to be dealt with in other way?
conclusion
Conclusion
  • gaps in the knowledge about criminal justice interventions in case of drug offences seem to be quite substantial throughout Europe;
  • because of this the need to collect more data and to conduct research in this area seems to be especially acute!