ARCHAEOTOURISM – THE PAST IS OUR FUTURE? Frances McGettigan Athlone Institute of Technology Department of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Studies Agnieszka Rozenkiewicz University of Wrocław Institute of Geography and Regional Development Department of Regional Geography and Tourism
PRESENTATION PLAN • Introduction to archaeotourism Archaeological resources of Ireland • Between culture, heritage and archaeology - the place of archaeological sites in the interests of tourism • Investigation into the visitor experience at archaeological sites - the case study of Newgrange • Aim and objectives • Methodology • Presentation of the results 4. Conclusions and recommendations for further research
1. INTRODUCTION TO ARCHAEOTOURISM Archaeotourism 1. A tourism category that places emphasis on two critical issues, i.e. conservation of historical-archaeological sites as well as the propagation and dissemination of interest in the heritage of the past epochs (adapted after Baram 2008). 2. ‘A form of heritage-based tourism in which archaeological landscape represents a core-motivation or peripheral-motivation for on-site visits and/or off-site experience, e.g. museums, travelling exhibitions. It also includes all structural aspects (e.g. organizations and policies) as well as operational processes (e.g. marketing and tour guiding) which are relative to archaeological heritage in a particular area’ (Al-Busaidi 2008, p.53). References: Baram, U. (2008) ‘Tourism and Archaeology’, in Pearsall, D. M., ed., Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Vol. 3, Amsterdam and London: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2131-2134. Al-Busaidi, Y. S. A. (2008) Public Interpretation of Archaeological Heritage and Archaeotourism in the Sultanate of Oman, (PhD), Cardiff School of Management.
1. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF IRELAND • rich supply of cultural and heritage attractions • an audit of the Irish national heritage in 1985 indicated the existence of 200,000 known archaeological sites and monuments, and 60,000 buildings of architectural or historic interest (Page 1994) • authenticity, uniqueness Page , S. J. (1994) ‘Developing Heritage Tourism in Ireland in the 1990s’, Tourism Recreation Research, 19, 79-89.
1. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF IRELAND NORTH-WEST Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery County Sligo Source: Tripadvisor.com (2011) Source: Goireland.com (2011)
1. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF IRELAND WEST Céide Fields County Mayo Source: Gaelsirishtravel.com (2008) Source: Picasaweb.google.com (2011)
1. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF IRELAND SHANNON REGION The Burren County Clare Poulnabrone Dolmen Source: Globtroter.pl (2011)
1. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF IRELAND SOUTH-WEST Skellig Michael County Kerry Source: Sacredsites.com (2010) Source: Ringofkerrytourism.com (2011)
1. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF IRELAND SOUTH-EAST Rock of Cashel County Tipperary Source: National-geograpchic.pl (2011)
1. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF IRELAND MIDLANDS & EAST COAST Brú na Bóinne County Meath Source: Own collection (2011)
2. BETWEEN CULTURE, HERITAGE AND ARCHAEOLOGY … CULTURAL TOURISM • HERITAGE TOURISM • Protected heritage tourism • Archaeological tourism/archaeotourism • Tourism to historic objects and places • Museum tourism • Thanatourism • Ethnographic tourism • Homeland tourism • Sentimental/nostalgic tourism • CONTEMPORARY CULTURE TOURISM • Event tourism • Contemporary arts tourism • Tourism to objects of contemporary architecture • Tourism to theme parks • Clubbing tourism Source: adapted after Buczkowska (2008) Buczkowska, K. (2008) Turystyka Kulturowa: Przewodnik Metodyczny, Poznań: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Eugeniusza Piaseckiego w Poznaniu.
1) Attractions a) Monuments Religious buildings Public buildings Historic houses Castles and palaces Parks and gardens Defences Archaeological sites Industrial-archaeological buildings b) Museums Folklore museums Art museums c) Routes Cultural-historic routes Art routes d) Theme Parks Cultural-historic parks Archaeological parks Architecture parks 2) Events a) Cultural-historic events Religious festivals Secular festivals Folk festivals b) Art events Art exhibitions Art festivals c) Events and attractions Open Monument Days 2. BETWEEN CULTURE, HERITAGE AND ARCHAEOLOGY … GENERAL TYPOLOGY OF CULTURAL TOURISM RESOURCES • Source: Munsters (1994 cited in Munsters 1996) Munsters, W. (1996) ‘Cultural Tourism in Belgium’, in Richards, G., ed., Cultural Tourism in Europe, Wallingford: CABI (Re-issued in 2005 in electronic format by ATLAS), 80-92.
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Research aim: To investigate the visitor experience at archaeological sites using the example of Newgrange Objective 1: To identify motivations behind the visit to Newgrange Objective 2: To examine the visitor perception of archaeological sites as tourist attractions based on the example of Newgrange • Methodology: • Questionnaire-based quantitative research method • Sample group = 50 (dictated by the requirements for the Honours Degree in Tourism and Hospitality Management at Athlone Institute of Technology) • Research was conducted at Brú na Bóinne Visitor Centre on Sunday the 27th of February 2011 • The overall number of visitors to Newgrange on that day was 263
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 1 Visitor profile Gender ratio: 50% females 50% males • Visitor Nationality: • Domestic visitors 60% • (including Northern Ireland) • the Irish and British 47% • Poles 27% • Germans13% • Czechs 7% • Americans • Italians Figure 2 6%
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 3 Visitor profile Figure 4
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 5 Sightseeing group specifications Figure 6
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 7 Motivations behind the visit to Newgrange • The main purpose for undertaking the trip to Newgrange • visit to the archaeological site (82%) • holiday (10%) • visiting family and friends (6%) • other (2%)
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 8 Motivations behind the visit to Newgrange • Was the fact that Newgrange (as a part of the Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne) is designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO one of the criteria of value and decisive factors behind your visit? • Yes (36%) • No (64%) Taking into account your interests and motivations for today’s visit, does the term archaeological tourist suit you? • Yes (64%) • No (36%)
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 9 Motivations behind the visit to Newgrange Visitor profile of Archaeotourists Gender ratio: 38% females, 62% males Age distribution: 15 – 24 9% 25 – 3447% 35 - 4428% 45 or older 16% Education: Doctoral degree 6% Master degree 31% Bachelor degree 41% Vocational education 13% Secondary school9%
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 10 Visitor profile of Archaeotourists Domestic visitors 53% Overseas visitors 47% Occupation: 24% Students 19% Directors/Managers 19% Doctors, lawyers, teachers 16% Clerical/administrative workers 16% Service or sales workers 6% Manual workers
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Visitor perception of archaeological sites as tourist attractions • access to the site • length of stay • evaluation of tourist facilities and services • archaeological sites as tourist attractions • assessment of the visitor experience • Access to the site • 92% of the surveyed visitors reached the site using a private mode of transport (a car, a motorcycle, etc.) and only 8% decided to visit Newgrange with the use of public transportation • access to the site did not pose any difficulties for 82% of visitors • 12% of visitors reported having problems reaching the site due to not adequate signage • 6% of visitors were not sure how to rate it • Length of stay • Less than 2 hours 62% • From 2 to 3 hours 8% • From 3 to 5 hours 30%
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 11 Visitor perception of archaeological sites as tourist attractions Preferred ways of sightseeing archaeological sites 8% Individually 44 % With a guide 48% Partially individuallyand partially with a guide
3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES – THE CASE STUDY OF NEWGRANGE Figure 12 Visitor perception of archaeological sites as tourist attractions • Indicate the MAIN role of archaeological • sites as tourist attractions • Educational56% • Cultural 34% • Recreational 10% • Tick ONE of the statements below that you agree the most with • Protection of archaeological sites in Ireland should be increased and direct access for tourists reduced (22%) • Protection of archaeological sites in Ireland and promotion to the public are at an acceptable level(56%) • More tourists should gain direct access to archaeological sites in Ireland (22%) • Visitor experience • Excellent66% • Good 32% • Fair 2%
4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH • Archaeotourism is a separate and significant subcategory of tourism • High quantitative potential and outstanding features of the archaeological heritage of Ireland may play a pivotal role as the attracting force for future visitors • Further research including the detailed profile of archaeological tourists, in particular comprising their needs and expectations towards the Irish archaeological sites as tourist attractions should be undertaken • The existence of exceptionally well-preserved archaeological attractions, that in many cases provide high-class tourist facilities, should be promoted • ‘Smart’ marketing campaigns raising the visitors’ awareness of this angle of the Irish tourism potential can be seen as one of the routes to the recovery of the tourism industry in Ireland