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Chapter 12 Developing and Managing Brand and Product Categories

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Chapter 12 Developing and Managing Brand and Product Categories. Objectives. Explain the benefits of category and brand management. Identify the different types of brands. Explain the strategic value of brand equity.

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Chapter 12
  • Developing and Managing Brand and Product Categories
  • Explain the benefits of category and brand management.
  • Identify the different types of brands.
  • Explain the strategic value of brand equity.
  • Discuss how companies develop strong identities for their products and brands.
  • Describe the strategies for new product development.
  • Describe the consumer adoption process.
  • List the stages in the process for developing new products.
  • Discuss the relationship between product safety and product liability.
creating and protecting a strong identity for products
Creating and Protecting a Strong Identity for Products
  • Branding is the process of creating that identity.
  • Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design, or some combination thereof, that identifies the products.
  • Buyers respond to branding by making repeat purchases because they identify the item with the name of its producer.
building loyalty
Building Loyalty
  • How does Avis build customer loyalty? Buy focusing on how customers feel about each step of the car rental process and then applying that knowledge to the day-to-day running of the company. Avis has broken the rental process into more than 100 incremental steps -- making reservations, finding the pickup counter, getting to the car, driving it, returning it, and paying the bill.
  • Source: Business2.0 July 2002 Issue
three stages to measure brand 1 of 2 loyalty
Three Stages to Measure Brand 1 of 2 Loyalty
  • Brand recognition
  • Brand preference
  • Brand insistence
three stages to measure brand 2 of 2 loyalty
Three Stages to Measure Brand 2 of 2 Loyalty
  • Brand recognition is a company’s first objective for newly introduced products. Marketers begin the promotion of new items by trying to make these items familiar.
    • Other strategies for creating brand recognition include offering free samples or discount coupons for purchase.
  • Brand preference - buyersrely on previous experiences when choosing that product.
  • Brand insistence, the ultimate stage in brand loyalty, leads consumers to refuse alternatives and to search extensively for the desired merchandise. A product at this stage has achieved a monopoly position.
the different types of brands
The Different Types of Brands
  • Generic products - Have plain labels, little or no advertising, and no brand names.
  • Manufacturer’s brand refers to a brand name owned by a manufacturer or other producer
  • Captive brands are national brands that are sold exclusively by a retail chain.
the different types of brands1
The Different Types of Brands
  • Family brand is a single brand name that identifies several related products.
  • Individual brand, uniquely identifies a product itself.
brand identity
Brand Identity
  • Brand equity refers to the added value that a certain brand name gives to a product in the marketplace.
  • Brand identity backed by superior quality offers important strategic advantages:
    • First, it increases the likelihood that consumers will recognize the firm’s product or product line.
    • Second, a strong brand identity can contribute to buyers’ perceptions of produce quality.
four dimensions of brand personality
Four Dimensions of Brand Personality

Knowledge refers to the extent of customers’ awareness of the brand and understanding of what a good or service stands for.

Relevance refers to the real and perceived appropriateness of the brand to a big consumer segment.

Esteem is a combination of perceived quality and consumer perceptions about the growing or declining popularity of a brand.



of Brand


Differentiation refers to a brand’s ability to stand apart from competitors

brand name
Brand Name
  • Part of the brand consisting of words or letters that form a name that identifies and distinguishes the firm’s offering from those of its competitors.
  • Effective brand names are easy to pronounce, recognize, and remember.
  • Should also give buyers the correct connotation of the product’s image.
  • Must also qualify for legal protection.
is bush a ford and kerry a bmw wsj 8 04
Is Bush a Ford and Kerry a BMW? WSJ 8-04
  • Undecided voters link candidates to the brands below:


  • Coffee Dunkin’ Donuts Starbucks
  • Technology IBM Apple
  • Auto Ford BMW
  • Retail Big K Target
  • Fast Food McDonald’s Subway
brands ponder change
Brands Ponder Change
  • Tsunami Research Inc. scratches name & logo featuring a tidal-wave graphic took on a new meaning on Dec. 26, 04
    • WSJ 1-05
  • Ayds Diet chocolates - 1975
  • A brand for which the owner claims exclusive legal protection.
  • Trademark protection confers the exclusive legal right to use a brand name, brand mark, and any slogan or product name abbreviation.
  • Frequently trademark protection is applied to words or phrases.
  • Firms can also receive trademark protection for packaging elements and product features.
trade dress
Trade Dress
  • Visual cues used in branding create an overall look sometimes referred to as trade dress.
  • Visual components may be related to:
    • color selections,
    • sizes,
    • package and label shapes,
    • and similar factors.
  • A package serves three major objectives:
    • Protection against damage, spoilage, and pilferage.
    • Assistance in marketing the product.
    • Cost effectiveness.
beer wine packages
Beer & Wine Packages
  • Iron City Beer in aluminum cans, 9-04
    • Easier, safer portability
    • Allowed at sports & concert


    • Chill faster
    • Easier to ship
    • More cost effective to recycle
  • Francis Ford Coppolas’s Winery, 9-04
    • Sofia Blanc in pink metallic 4-pack, $20
product development strategies
Product Development Strategies
  • Market penetration strategyseeks to increase sales of existing products in existing markets.
  • Product positioningrefers to consumers’ perceptions of a product’s attributes, uses, quality, advantages and disadvantages.
  • A market development strategyconcentrates on finding new markets for existing producers.
  • Product developmentrefers to the introduction of new products into identifiable or established markets.
stages in the consumer adoption process
Stages in the Consumer Adoption Process
  • Awareness - Individuals first learn the new product.
  • Interest - Potential buyers begin to seek information about it.
  • Evaluation - consider the likely benefits of the product.
  • Trial - They make trial purchases to determine its usefulness.
  • Adoption/Rejection - If the trial purchase produces satisfactory results, they decide to use the product regularly.
new product development process
New-Product Development Process

Idea Generation

begins with ideas from any source.


Separates ideas with commercial potential from those that cannot meet company objectives.

Business Analysis

consists of assessing the new product’s potential market, growth rate, and likely competitive strengths.


The conversion process is the joint responsibility of the firm’s development engineers.



Purpose is to verify that the product will perform well in a real-life business environment.

Commercialization--it is ready for full-scale marketing. Can expose the firm to substantial expenses.

counterfeit war
Counterfeit War
  • $456b or 7% of global trade
  • Light penalties abroad
  • LVMH or Nike spend $10m/year on enforcement
  • NYC: $25b, NYPD trademark infringement unit created in 1004
  • RFID tags on tracking imported goods since go through 17 different hands. Only physically inspect 5% of containers entering U.S. ports