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Alexandria. Alexander’s Campaign. 334-323 BC Defeated Darius III of Persia Falls apart quickly Importance of his campaign?. Foundation. 331 BC Location Ptolemy. Layout. Great Harbor Royal Quarter 90° angles; modern Library Necropolis. The Pharos.

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Alexandria


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    1. Alexandria

    2. Alexander’s Campaign • 334-323 BC • Defeated Darius III of Persia • Falls apart quickly • Importance of his campaign?

    3. Foundation • 331 BC • Location • Ptolemy

    4. Layout • Great Harbor • Royal Quarter • 90° angles; modern • Library • Necropolis

    5. The Pharos • Built 200’s BC • 393-450 ft tall • Island • Heptastadion • Lighting system

    6. Ampharos • Amp + Pharos

    7. 7 Wonders of the Ancient World • Pharos at Alexandria • Hanging Gardens of Babylon • Temple of Artemis at Ephesus • Colossus of Rhodes • Great Pyramid of Giza • Statue of Zeus at Olympia • Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

    8. Education & Study • Museion (museum) • Philosophy, poetry, math, astronomy, geography, anatomy, languages, music • Archimedes, Euclid, Eratosthenes, Callimachus • Prominence in East

    9. Library • 500,000+ volumes of scrolls • Greek literature • Alexandrian Poets

    10. Alexandria & Rome • Caesar vs. Pompey & Senate – Civil War • Cleopatra & Ptolemy XIII – co-ruling • Greeks • Pompey’s assassination • Caesar vs. Ptolemy • Siege by Ptolemy

    11. End of the Library • At least partially burned during Caesar’s visit • Ships, dock, library • More fire in 3rd cent. • Pagan texts • Arabic conquest

    12. Cleopatra VII • Takes her chance with Caesar • Caesarion • Sosigenes • Octavian/Augustus • Goes to Rome with Caesar • Public knowledge • “Foreign queen” • March 15, 44 BC

    13. Post-Shankery • Cleopatra returns to Egypt as ruler • Octavian & Marc Antony team up to kill Caesar’s assassins • Battle from English II class? • Cleopatra helps Octavian & Antony

    14. Antony & Cleopatra • Antony gets her support while he wages wars • Three kids • Octavian vs. Antony – new civil war • Rome vs. Egypt • Battle of Actium – Sep. 2, 31 BC • Antony & Cleopatra commit suicide • Octavian becomes Augustus, the first emperor of Rome – 27 BC

    15. New Empire1st century AD • Egypt – Breadbasket of empire • Personal property of the emperor • Trade center • Clothes, silk, metals, tools, glass, ivory, wine, oil, rice, honey, wheat, cinnamon, papyrus

    16. Caesareum • Started by Cleopatra • Finished by Augustus • Cleopatra’s Needles

    17. Mixed Demographics • Ethnic Greeks in charge • Politically, administratively • Language • Economically • Population: Egyptians, Romans, Jews, Africans, Indians • Get jealousof the Greeks • Riots; imperial interventions • Does this still happen today?