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Disciplinary Literacy

Disciplinary Literacy

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Disciplinary Literacy

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  1. Disciplinary Literacy “. . .experts read their respective texts quite differently.” -Shanahan & Shanahan DPI training developed in partnership with Lisa Arneson, CESA 3 Director of Curriculum & Instructional Services

  2. Agenda 2017 Standards & Instruction • What and how should kids learn? Assessments and Data Systems • How do we know if they learned it? School and Educator Effectiveness • How do we ensure that students have highly effective teachers and schools? School Finance Reform • How should we pay for schools?

  3. Target Goals By 2017, we need to reach target goals that prepare our students for success in further education and career: • Further increase graduation rate from 85.7 percent to 92 percent. • Increase career and college readiness from 32 percent to 67 percent. • Close graduation and career and college readiness gaps by 50 percent. • Increase the percentage of students scoringproficient in third-grade reading and eighth-grade mathematics. • Adopt the Fair Funding for Our Future plan to make school finance more equitable and transparent.

  4. In Wisconsin. . . . . .disciplinary literacy is defined as the confluence of content knowledge, experiences, and skills merged with the ability to read, write, listen, speak and think critically in a way that is meaningful within the context of a given field.

  5. Disciplinary Literacy Read, Write, Listen, Speak, and Think Content Knowledge, Experience, and Skills

  6. Disciplinary Literacy “Literacy… becomes an essential aspect of disciplinary practice, rather than a set of strategies or tools brought into the disciplines to improve reading and writing of subject-matter texts.” - Elizabeth Birr Moje “Foregrounding the Disciplines in Secondary Literacy Teaching and Learning: A Call for Change.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. Oct. 2008.

  7. Common Core State Standards “The CCSS insist that instruction in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language is a shared responsibility within the school.”

  8. Range of Texts Distribution of Literary and Informational Passages in the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework “To measure students’ growth toward college and career readiness, assessments aligned with the CCSS should adhere to the distribution of texts across grades cited in the NAEP framework.”

  9. Text Complexity • Levels of meaning • Structure • Language conventionality and clarity • Knowledge demands • Word frequency • Sentence length • Text cohesion • Motivation • Knowledge/experiences • Purpose • Task complexity

  10. Text Selection What texts do experts in your field read?

  11. Types of Texts What types of text do experts in your field read? Fiction nonFiction

  12. Types of Texts What types of text do students read in your classes?

  13. Text Resources BadgerLink (www.badgerlink.net/) “Article of the Week” (www.kellygallagher.org) Time Magazine (http://www.time.com/time/) The Week Magazine (http://theweek.com/) The New Yorker (http://www.newyorker.com/) The New York Times (http://www.nytimes.com/) Where can you access authentic texts?

  14. Readicide: The systematic killing of the love of reading • Requiring students to read difficult texts without proper instructional support • Insisting that students focus solely on academic texts • Ignoring the importance of developing recreational reading • Losing sight of authentic instruction

  15. Literacy Skills: Reading

  16. Text Features Index Photo Paragraph Table of Content Title Text features help students identify important details in the text and become more efficient in their reading. Caption Illustration Diagram Bold Print Heading/Subheading Glossary Paragraph Date line

  17. Text Features Text Feature Scavenger Hunt Locate text features within a variety of texts, and identify in which text you found it, the page number, which section of the text you found it, and how it helps you as a reader.

  18. Text Structures Text structures - the way that authors organize information - help students focus attention on key concepts and relationships, anticipate what’s to come, and monitor their comprehension as they read.

  19. Text Structures Chronological Order or Process: Teacher cuts up a published text, and students put it in order Cause & Effect: Students stand in line, and teacher gives a prompt that ends with “which caused…” and the students one-by-one create the subsequent effects Problem/Solution: Students write down problems that they notice in their school/society and exchange with another group who finds a solution to the problem Compare and Contrast: Students classify and divide themselves or a mixed bag of objects, identifying similarities and differences Definition or Description: Teacher puts a mystery item in a brown paper bag and have teams write definitions and other teams have to guess the object

  20. Vocabulary “Words are not just words. They are the nexus – the interface – between communication and thought.” - Marilyn Jager Adams

  21. Vocabulary “While the term tier may connotate a hierarchy, a ranking of words from least to most important , the reality is that all three tiers of words are vital to comprehension and vocabulary development.”

  22. Integrated Model of Literacy Knowledge builds on knowledge.

  23. Close Reading Teacher introduces the text and sets the purpose, and students read. 2. Students annotate the text, i.e., “read with a pencil” or “interrogate the text.” 3. Students talk through their understanding of the text with a partner. 4. Teacher reads passages of text out loud as students follow along. 5. Teacher guides discussion (whole group, small group, or partners) of the passage with text-dependent questions. 6. Students record their thinking.

  24. Annotations

  25. Text-Dependent Questions Text-dependent questions require students to return to the text to formulate responses.

  26. Which of the following questionsrequire students to read the text closely? • If you were present at the signing of the Declaration of Independence, what would you do? • What are the reasons listed in the preamble for supporting their argument to separate from Great Britain?

  27. If you were present at the signing of the Declaration of Independence, what would you do? • What are the reasons listed in the preamble for supporting their argument to separate from Great Britain?

  28. Text-Dependent Questions A progression of text-dependent questions develops critical thinking.

  29. A Close Reading of“American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” Introduce the text, and set the purpose for reading. Examine how the author uses evidence to determine why there has been an increase in the number of people receiving food stamps. http://theweek.com/article/index/224955/americans-growing-dependency-on-food-stamps

  30. A Close Reading of American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” Students annotate the text, i.e., “read with a pencil” or “interrogate the text.” Annotate: Circle powerful words or phrases that affect you. Underline that which confuses you. Quick-write: Describe your impression of food stamps. • General Understanding • Main idea of the text • Overall organization of the text

  31. A Close Reading of American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” Students talk through their understanding of the text with a partner. Describe your understanding of food stamps. Remember to use accountable talk (asking questions, providing evidence from the text) to compare and contrast your impressions with one another.

  32. A Close Reading of“American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” Read a passage of text out loud as students follow along. Orient students to the text, and ask them to follow along. Read the passage aloud without interruption.

  33. A Close Reading ofAmerican’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” Guide discussion (whole group, small group, or partners) of the passage with text-dependent questions.

  34. A Close Reading ofAmerican’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” • Key Details • Supporting details that support main ideas • The who, what, when, where, why, how much, or how many • Nuances in meaning • Why are so many people living on food stamps? • How much does the economic downturn contribute? • What are the qualifications to be eligible for food stamps?

  35. A Close Reading of“American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” • Vocabulary & Text Structure • Literal and inferential meanings • Denotation and connotation • Figurative language • How organization contributes to meaning • What does the word “rechristened” mean in the first paragraph? • What is the Gingrich referring to when he says, “African Americans should demand paychecks and not be satisfied with food stamps?”

  36. A Close Reading of“American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” • Author’s Purpose • Purpose: Entertain? Inform? Persuade? • Point of view: 1st person, 3rd person limited/omniscient, un/reliable narrator • Critical Literacy: Who’s story is not represented? • Is the author trying to entertain, inform, or persuade the reader? How do you know? • From whose point of view is the article written? How would the article be different if it were told from a food stamp recipient perspective?

  37. A Close Reading of“American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” • Inference • Probe each argument in persuasive texts* • Probe each idea in informational texts* • Probe each key detail in literary texts* • * Observe how these build to a whole • There is fraud in the food stamp program (SNAP), can spending be reduced to save American taxpayers money?

  38. A Close Reading of“American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” • Opinions, Arguments, Intertextual Connections • Author’s opinion and reasoning (K-5) • Evidence • Claims and counterclaims • Rhetoric • What are your thoughts about the free breakfast and lunch program at our school?

  39. A Close Reading of“American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” Students record their thinking. In the article, “American’s Growing Dependency on Food Stamps” determine and defend if we are feeding the hungry, breeding dependency or both? Ask students to write an essay.

  40. Text-Dependent Tasks Students must INTERACT with the text, not just passively read and answer questions. Are your student tasks useful, authentic, and rigorous? Are they tasks experts in your field do on a regular basis?

  41. Integrated Model of Literacy Knowledge builds on knowledge.

  42. CCSS Sample Performance Tasks Students determine the central ideas found in the Declaration of Sentiments by the Seneca Falls Conference, noting the parallels between it and the Declaration of Independence and providing a summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas of each text and between the texts. What content knowledge is assessed in this performance task? Which literacy standards are embedded within this performance task?

  43. CCSS Sample Performance Tasks • Students integrate the information provided by Mary C. Daly, vice president at the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, with the data presented visually in the FedViews report. In their analysis of these sources of information presented in diverse formats, students frame and address a question or solve a problem raised by their evaluation of the evidence. What content knowledge is assessed in this performance task? Which literacy standards are embedded within this performance task?

  44. CCSS Sample Performance Tasks • Students analyze the hierarchical relationships between phrase searches and searches that use basic Boolean operators in Tara Calishain and RaelDornfest’s Google Hacks: Tips & Tools for Smarter Searching, 2nd Edition. What content knowledge is assessed in this performance task? Which literacy standards are embedded within this performance task?

  45. CCSS Sample Performance Tasks • Students analyze the concept of mass based on their close reading of Gordon Kane’s “The Mysteries of Mass” and cite specific textual evidence from the text to answer the question of why elementary particles have mass at all. Students explain important distinctions the author makes regarding the Higgs field and the Higgs boson and their relationship to the concept of mass. What content knowledge is assessed in this performance task? Which literacy standards are embedded within this performance task?

  46. CCSS Sample Performance Tasks • Students determine the meaning of key terms such as hydraulic, trajectory, and torque as well as other • domain-specific words and phrases such as actuators, antilock brakes, and traction control used in Mark Fischetti’s “Working Knowledge: Electronic Stability Control.” What content knowledge is assessed in this performance task? Which literacy standards are embedded within this performance task?

  47. Text-Dependent Tasks Students must INTERACT with the text, not just passively read and answer questions. Are your student tasks useful, authentic, and rigorous? Are they tasks experts in your field do on a regular basis?

  48. Writing • Distribution of Communicative Purposes by Grade in the 2011 NAEP Writing Framework “Writing assessments aligned with the Standards should adhere to the distribution of writing purposes across grades outlined by NAEP.”

  49. Text Selection What texts do experts in your field write?