the student will analyze the origins and impact of u s involvement in world war i n.
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The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. Standard 15. Outbreak of WWI Review. Germany and Austria-Hungary form an alliance France and Russia form an alliance

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    1. The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. Standard 15

    2. Outbreak of WWI Review • Germany and Austria-Hungary form an alliance • France and Russia form an alliance • (Germany is located in the middle and would have a two front war if they were ever at war with either country)

    3. Outbreak of WWI Review • Austria-Hungary, in an imperialistic effort, takes over Bosnia • Serbian nationalists wanted to combine with Bosnia to form a super Slavic state • Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, visits Bosnia in 1914 where he and his wife are assassinated by a Serbian terrorist • Austria-Hungary blames the Serbian government for the assassination and declares war

    4. Outbreak of WWI Review • Russia had an alliance with Serbia and mobilized its army • Now Germany (Austria-Hungary’s ally) and France (Russia’s ally) were drawn into war • Germany’s top military commander had designed a war plan for a scenario such as this  they would attack France first and then concentrate on Russia

    5. Outbreak of WWI Review • Germany prepared to march into France through Belgium • Great Britain had an alliance with Belgium • When German soldiers marched into Belgium, Great Britain declared war on Germany

    6. Outbreak of WWI Review • Great Britain, France, and Russia (the Allies) fight the biggest and most brutal war the world has ever seen against Germany and Austria-Hungary (the Central Powers)

    7. WWI Review • Nationalism began to rise in Europe – a deep devotion to one’s nation. • This can unify a country, but it can also it can also cause completion for power

    8. WWI Review • Imperialism was another problem facing Europe • At times, war almost broke out over colonial possessions • Predominately in Africa and Asia

    9. WWI Review • Militarism– glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war • The great powers of Europe all had large armies by 1914 (except Great Britain) • Plans were made to be able to quickly mobilize, organize, and move in case of war

    10. WWI Review • Alliances were made all over Europe with the intent to keep peace – but this would backfire • 1879 – Bismarck (Germany) made a dual alliance with Austria-Hungary and 3 years later Italy joined to make the Triple Alliance

    11. WWI Review • In response, Britain forms an alliance with France and Russia called the Triple Entente • Now had two powerful camps in Europe • Triple Alliance • Triple Entente

    12. GreatBritain Russia Germany France Austria-Hungary Italy

    13. WWI Review • The war would now be divided into two fronts • Western Front (German/French Border) • Eastern Front (German/Russian Border)

    14. Russia Eastern Front Germany Western Front France

    15. WWI Review • Both sides dug miles of parallel trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire – this is known as trench warfare • Armies would trade large amounts of life for pitifully small land gains

    16. a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare.

    17. US Neutrality • World War I began in Europe in 1914 • President Woodrow Wilson was determined to guarantee U.S. neutrality • Keep the United States out of the war • Saw no reason to join a war 3,000 miles away

    18. US in WWI • Britain used its Navy to set up a blockade of the German coast • By 1917, estimated 750,000 Germans starved to death • Germany responded with a counter blockade • Used U-boats (Unterseeboot– German word for submarine)

    19. US in WWI • In 1915 the luxury liner Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine • Killing most of the people on board, including more than 100 U.S. citizens • This turned public opinion against Germany

    20. US in WWI • This led to a crisis between the United States and Germany • Was resolved when Germany agreed to abandon unrestricted submarine warfare • In 1917 Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare, • This heightened tension was one reason the U.S. would enter the war

    21. US in WWI • Zimmerman note • Telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico • Proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany • Mexico would get Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back • This was the another reason the US would join the war

    22. US in WWI • At the time the US declared war, only 200,000 men were in the service • Selective Service Act • Register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service • Within a year, 24 million men registered • 3 million were called up • 2 million would reach Europe • ¾ of them saw actual action • 400,000 African American served • Most in France

    23. US in WWI • 8 month training period • 17 hour days • Target practice • Bayonet drills • Kitchen duty • Cleaning up the grounds • Real weapons were in short supply • Rocks instead of grenades • Sticks instead of rifles

    24. US in WWI • Convoy System • Helped merchant ships get back and forth to Europe with goods • Defensive barrier of ships • Destroyers • Cruisers • Etc…

    25. US in WWI • Europeans had been fighting for years and were exhausted and demoralized • Americans were fresh and enthusiastic

    26. US in WWI • New Weapons (refined) • Machine Gun • Tank • Airplane

    27. Bayonet

    28. Introduction • Tradition says it was developed in Bayonne, France, in the early 17th century • It was used by all sides throughout the entirety of the war • Use was more psychological than practical

    29. Uses • Toasting bread • Opening cans • Scrape mud off uniforms • Preparation of latrines • Good chance you wouldn’t hit one of your own

    30. Simple Design • Most looked like a knife • French used a needle blade • Germans had a ‘saw-back’ • Allies used this as ‘Propaganda’ against the Germans • Most likely it was just used as a saw when needed

    31. Close Combat Fighting • You did not want to aim at the following areas: • Chest – if you hit the breastbone, might have problems getting it out • Groin – most people would grab bayonet and then you would have to remove it to continue

    32. Flamethrower

    33. Introduction • Used by the Germans in the early phases of the war • It brought terror to both the British and the French • It was quickly adopted by both sides

    34. How it works • Spread fire by launching fuel • Date as far back as the 5th century • Like a blow gun…had a burning solid (such as coal) and propel it at their enemy

    35. Flammenwerfer • Kleinflammenwerfer – smaller/lighter • Portable • Carried by a single man • Pressurized air and carbon dioxide or nitrogen it belched forth a stream of burning oil for as much as 18 meters

    36. Flammenwerfer • Grossflammenwerfer – larger • Worked the same (pretty much) • One man could not carry it • Max range was twice as far • Could sustain flames for 40 seconds • Very expensive to use

    37. Use in war • Groups of six during battle • Each machine used by two men • Mostly to clear forward defenders preceding their infantry • Used at short range • Very dangerous for user • Had gas cylinder on back (explode) • Kill all those around you • Life expectancy was short • Germans had launched over 650 attacks

    38. Grenades

    39. Introduction • Name probably dates from the French word for ‘pomegranate’ • May date back as far as the 15th century

    40. Bombing Parties • Weapon was used mostly by grenadiers • Task was the bombing of trenches and positions • British – 9 men at a time • NCO, two throwers, two carriers, two bayonet-men (to defend), and two ‘spare’ just in case • Race down the enemy trench and throw grenades in the dugout area

    41. Two forms of Detonation • Impact (percussion) • Timed fuse • Timed was preferred • Accidental jolt would not kill you • Had a pin that set off timer when removed

    42. Rifle Grenade • Attached to a rod and placed down the barrel of a rifle • Could also be placed in a cup attached to the barrel • Launched by the blast of a blank cartridge

    43. After the war • The grenade was so popular by the end of the war that pretty much every country kept them in their armory • During WWII the U.S. alone manufactured over 50 million fragmentation grenades • It’s still in use today

    44. MachineGuns

    45. Introduction • Invented by Hiram Maxim • Gas produced by the explosion of powder in each cartridge created a recoil • This served to continually operate the machine gun • No external power was needed • Water cooled and belt fed • In theory, could fire up to 600 rounds per minute • It was very heavy

    46. The Early Machine Gun • Usually positioned on a flat tripod • Required a crew of 4-6 operators • Would usually overheat and not operate until it was cooled • So would shoot in short burst instead of long sustained firing