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Global Systems Technology, Inc.

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  1. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Understanding the Repeatable Level of Process Maturity SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE SOFTWARE PROJECT TRACKING AND OVERSIGHT REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE PROJECT PLANNING SOFTWARE SUBCONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

  2. Process discipline is in place to repeat earlier project successes It worked, It worked. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Repeatable Level Overview • 6 Key Process Areas • Requirements Management • Project Planning • Project Tracking and Oversight • Subcontract Management • Software Quality Assurance • Configuration Management • Focus is on the project • Project management processes are established to track cost, schedule, and functionality • Discipline is in place to repeat earlier successes

  3. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Moving from Level 1 to Level 2 • At Level 1, an organization gets the job done by the skill and efforts of individuals • At Level 2, a software project management system is in place and used throughout the organization • The Level 2 organization sets expectations via management policies and directives • Level 2 projects have disciplined processes, but they are often not common processes

  4. SOFTWARE PROJECT PLANNING SOFTWARE PROJECT TRACKING AND OVERSIGHT SOFTWARE SUBCONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT Global Systems Technology, Inc. Repeatable Level of Process Maturity • The Repeatable Level Key Process Areas (KPAs) are all interrelated and tied together to provide the fundamental needs of a cohesive Project Management Capability. • As a group, the Repeatable Level KPAs provide a basis for building and managing a common software engineering process.

  5. Global Systems Technology, Inc. The Project Management System Is In Place • The process of building software is a series of black boxes with defined checkpoints (milestones). • The predominant need is to establish effective software project management • Software project management processes are documented and followed • Organizational policies guide the projects in establishing management processes • Successful practices developed on earlier projects can be repeated

  6. You Client Global Systems Technology, Inc. Requirements Management (RM) • Purpose is to establish a common understanding (agreement) between the customer and the software project of the customer’s requirements that will be addressed • Involves • document and control of customer specified requirements • Developing a mutual understanding of requirements (both technical and non technical) • plans, products and activities to be kept consistent with the requirements

  7. Global Systems Technology, Inc. • Agreement forms the basis for: • estimating • planning • performing • tracking • Changes to requirements are documented and controlled. • Management reviews project commitments before project initiation. • Changes to system requirements drive changes in the project plan, estimate, and activities.

  8. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Requirements Management Goals • Goal 1: System Requirements allocated to software are controlled to establish a baseline for software engineering and management. • Goal 2: Software plans, products, and activities are kept consistent with the system requirements allocated to software

  9. Global Systems Technology, Inc. What Does the CMM Mean by Requirements? system engineering end user customer requirements system requirements not allocated to software customer system requirements allocated to software other groups software engineering

  10. Global Systems Technology, Inc. What Does the CMM Mean by Requirements? User and Customer Needs CMM Point of Control System Requirements Requirements Allocated to Software Client determines what his functional need is, and defines that need in the context of operational change in the organization. Needs are understood by the vendor. Software Requirements The Client and the vendor agree on what is required to satisfy the business needs that have been identified. Stated in terms of what the system must do. (Performance and Functionality) The functionality that is to be satisfied by the software is “allocated” to the software project for development of that segment of the system. The allocated require-ments are restated in terms of what software must do to achieve the desired functionality.

  11. Global Systems Technology, Inc. What Is Meant by Customer? • Customers may be external or internal: • systems engineering • marketing • Operations • The customer and/or end user identifies the problem that software will address

  12. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Requirements Versus Allocated Requirements • The scope of Requirements Management is control of the requirements allocated to software • Software requirements are not the same as requirements allocated to software • Requirements allocated to software come from systems engineering • Software requirements are derived from requirements allocated to software

  13. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Requirements are Documented • The system requirements assigned to software engineering must be documented • Documenting system requirements can be as simple as a memo or as elaborate as a multi-volume specification • If requirements change, the changes must be documented and all resulting necessary changes in other documents must be tracked and verified.

  14. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Requirements Management Activities • Activity 1: The software engineering group reviews the allocated requirements (allocated requirements to software) before they are incorporated into the software project. • Activity 2: The software engineering group uses the allocated requirements as the basis for software plans, work products, and activities. (Project activities are based on requirements.) • Activity 3: Changes to the allocated requirements are reviewed and incorporated into the software project. (CMM recognizes change will happen)

  15. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Summarizing Requirements Management Prepare Do Measure Requirements allocated to software are reviewed by software engineers Commitments In place Organization Has the Ability Measurements Verifying implementation Requirements allocated to software are used as basis for software project plans, products, and activities Changes to allocated requirements are reviewed and incorporated

  16. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Barriers to Requirements Management • Requirements will change • Insufficient domain knowledge of developer • Insufficient understanding of “software systems” by the client • Insufficient time analyzing the client needs (vs what the client states as what he wants) • Customers do not always want to document the requirements • Requirements change without proper approval • customer changes • staff changes

  17. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Planning (SPP) Establish Commitments Define Plan Project Develop Estimates

  18. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Planning (PP, SPP) • Purpose is to establish reasonableplans for performing the software engineering and for managing the software project • Involves • developing estimates for the work to be performed • establishing the necessary commitments (such as the contract with the client) • defining the plan to perform the work

  19. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Planning (PP, SPP) Goals • Goal 1: Software Estimates are documented for use in planning and tracking the software project. • Goal 2: Software project activities and commitments are planned and documented. • Goal 3: Affected groups and individuals agree to their commitments related to the software project

  20. Global Systems Technology, Inc. • A project software manager is designated to be responsible (and has authority and accountability) for negotiating commitments and developing the project’s software development plan. Commitment to Perform Customer Needs Project Plan WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

  21. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Managing Based on a Plan • The plan provides the basis for initiating the software effort and managing the work. • Common names for this plan include: • Software Development Plan • Software Project Management Plan • Software Project Plan • Project Management Plan • Software Engineering Management Plan • Plans should be tailored to the needs of the project, but also comply with organizational requirements.

  22. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Packaging the Software Project Plan • All-in-One plan or separate plans which include: • Software Development Plan • Software Quality Assurance Plan • Software Configuration Management Plan • Project Training Plan • Software Test Plan • Risk Management

  23. Global Systems Technology, Inc. What is in a Software Development Plan? • A software development plan specifies many or all of the following: • the project’s chosen software life cycle model • a list of the products to be developed • criteria for peer reviews • estimates for level of effort (number of people (and skills), cost, schedules, etc.) • facilities, support tools, and hardware • project risks

  24. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Plans Are Based on Estimates • In creating estimates for size, effort, cost, schedule, and/or computer resources: • historical data is used, when available • assumptions and estimates are documented • Good estimating depends on the experience, skills, and judgment of the estimator.

  25. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Planning (PP, SPP) Activities • Activity 1: The software engineering group participates on the project proposal team . • Activity 2: Software project planning is initiated in the early stages of, and in parallel with, the overall project plan. • Activity 3: The software engineering group participates with the other affected groups in the overall project planning throughout the project’s life. • Activity 4: Software project commitments made to individuals and groups external to the organization are reviewed with senior management according to a documented procedure. • Activity 5: A software lifecycle with predefined stages of manageable size is identified or defined.

  26. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Planning (PP, SPP) Activities • Activity 6: The project’s software development plan is developed according to a documented procedure. • Activity 7: The plan for the software project is documented. • Activity 8: Software work products that are needed to establish and maintain control of the software project are identified. • Activity 9-11: Estimates are derived according to a documented procedure. Estimates include: • Size of the software work products • Efforts (time to complete project activities) and cost • Critical computer resources • Activity 12: The projects software schedule is derived according to a documented procedure.

  27. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Planning (PP, SPP) Activities • Activity 13: The software risks associated with the cost, resources, schedule, and technical aspects of the project are identified, assessed, and documented. • Activity 14: Plans for the project’s software engineering facilities and support tools are prepared. • Activity 15: Software planning data recorded. Caution!Why do you want to record the data that is used to establish the project plan? After all, you have the plan. When should you change your project plan?

  28. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Summarizing Project Planning Prepare Do Measure Participate on the proposal effort ensure that software requirements are appropriately understood. Commitments In place Organization Has the Ability Measurements Verifying implementation Plan software project (estimates, efforts, tools, risks, schedule, facilities, and critical resources). Establish external commitments, approved by management Maintain data used as basis of planning

  29. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Barriers to Software Project Planning • Planning takes time - - and commitment • Lack of specific domain knowledge or experience • Uncertainty of the ability of the resources to be applied • Estimating takes experience and data • Unrealistic demands or expectations • Organizational Management • Customer

  30. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Tracking and Oversight (PT, PTO) Actual Performance This is the desired state Planned Performance 1. = = Actual Performance When this, corrective action Planned Performance 2.

  31. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Tracking and Oversight (PT, PTO) • Purpose of Software Project Tracking and Oversight is to provide adequate visibility into actual progress so that management can take effective actions when software project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. • Involves • adjusting plans based on actual accomplishments and results • tracking and reviewing software accomplishments and results and comparing the results against documented estimates, commitments, and plans.

  32. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Tracking and Oversight (PT, PTO) Goals • Goal 1: Actual results and performance are tracked against the software plans. • Goal 2: Corrective actions are taken and managed to closure when actual results and performance deviate significantly from the software plans. • Goal 3: Changes to software commitments are agreed to by the affected groups and individuals.

  33. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Manage to a Plan • Progress is tracked against plans and specifications, including: • product size • project effort, cost, and schedule • activities • Risks • Mechanisms to track progress against plans include both internal reviews and formal reviews with the customer.

  34. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Taking Corrective Action • If, and when, discrepancies between plans and actual progress occur, a judgment must be made about whether to: • change the way the work is being done, or • adjust the plan • This judgment results in corrective action to determine the root cause of the required changes • Archives of original and adjusted plans should be kept

  35. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Tracking and Oversight (PTO, SPTO) Activities • Activity 1: The documented software development plan is used for tracking the software activities and communicating status. • Activity 2: The project’s software development plan is revised according to a documented procedure. • Activity 3: Software project commitments and changes to commitments made to individuals and groups external to the organization are reviewed with senior management according to a documented procedure. • Activity 4: Approved changes to commitments that affect the software project are communicated to the members of the software engineering group and other software-related groups.

  36. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Tracking and Oversight(PTO, SPTO) Activities • Activity 5-10: Project attributes that have been documented in the plan are tracked and corrective actions are taken, as necessary (to maintain consistency between actuals and plan). These attributes are: • Size of software work products (or changes) • Effort and costs • Critical computer resources • Project scheduled milestones • Software engineering activities • Project risks associated with cost, resource, schedule, and technical aspects • Activity 11: Actual measurement data and replanning data for the software project are recorded.

  37. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Project Tracking and Oversight (PTO, SPTO) Activities • Activity 12: The software engineering group conducts periodic internal reviews to track technical progress, plans, performance, and issues against the software development plan. • Activity 13: Formal reviews to address the accomplishments and results of the software project are conducted at selected project milestones according to a documented procedure. Caution!What is a “formal” review? Where in a project would you expect to have a “formal” review? How often should the project plan be changed?

  38. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Summarizing Project Tracking and Oversight Prepare Do Measure Compare the projects actual results to the documented software development and project plans. Commitments In place Organization Has the Ability Measurements Verifying implementation Conduct internal reviews, determine actuals, and conduct formal reviews to maintain relevance to objectives. Changes happen, drive changes to planning and commitments. Maintain data used for the basis of changes and corrective actions

  39. Barriers to Project Tracking and Oversight Global Systems Technology, Inc. • Plans may not be realistic • Manager may not be adequately trained • When fighting one set of fires, it is difficult to be proactive in preventing the next set • Too busy working. No time to manage • Rework happens • Customer intervention

  40. Software Subcontract Management Global Systems Technology, Inc. • Selecting a software subcontractor, establishingcommitments with the subcontractor, and tracking and reviewingperformance of the subcontractor. Your Sub contractor You

  41. 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 5 0 1 1 s s t t 2 2 n n d d 3 3 r r d d 4 4 t t h h Q Q t t r r Q Q t t r r Q Q t t r r Q Q t t r r Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Subcontract Management (SSM) 2 Subcontract Commitment 1 3 6 4 Product 5

  42. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Subcontract Management (SSM) • Purpose of Software Subcontract Management is to select qualified software subcontractors and manage them effectively. • Involves: • selecting a software subcontractor • establishing commitments with the subcontractor • tracking and reviewing the subcontractor’s performance and results

  43. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Subcontract Management (SSM) Goals • Goal 1: The prime contractor selects qualified software subcontractors • Goal 2: The prime contractor and the software subcontractor agree to their commitments to each other • Goal 3: The prime contractor and the software subcontractor maintain ongoing communications • Goal 4: The prime contractor tracks the software subcontractor’s actual results and performance against its commitments

  44. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Prime Versus Subcontractor • The Prime Contractor is the organization responsible for building a system • The prime contractor may contract out part of the work to another contractor, the subcontractor • Performance of the prime contractor may critically depend on the performance of the subcontractor

  45. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Planning for Subcontracts • In selecting and managing subcontractors, prime contractors must perform activities additional tothe ordinary project management effort: • specify the work to be performed and the procedures to be followed by the subcontract • statements of work • requirements • products to be delivered • standards • procedures • specify criteria for selecting and evaluating subcontractors

  46. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Selecting Subcontractors • The qualifications of a subcontractor may depend on many factors • process capability • software engineering expertise • application domain knowledge • Strategic business alliance • Achieve corporate goals, meet commitments

  47. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Managing Subcontracts • The prime contractor must managethe subcontract • ensure subcontractors follow agreed to software development plans, standards, and procedures • track progress via • periodic technical and formal reviews • monitor the subcontractor’s SQA activities • monitor software configuration management by the subcontractor • The subcontract is an extension of the project, just as if it was a group within the organization, and must be managed accordingly.

  48. Global Systems Technology, Inc. What About Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS)? • COTS items and non-developmental items (NDI) are not explicitly addressed in the CMM • Planning for COTS is mentioned in Activity 6 of Integrated Software Management: “Off-the-shelf or reusable software components are identified.” • Acceptance testing aspects of Software Subcontract Management should be used for COTS product evaluations

  49. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Subcontract Management (SM, SSM) Activities • Activity 1: The work to be subcontracted is defined and planned according to a documented procedure. • Activity 2: The software subcontractor is selected based on an evaluation of the subcontract bidders’ ability to perform the work, according to a documented procedure. • Activity 3: The contractual agreement between the prime contractor and the software subcontractor is used as the basis for managing the subcontract. • Activity 4: A documented subcontractor’s software development plan is reviewed and approved by the prime contractor.

  50. Global Systems Technology, Inc. Software Subcontract Management (SM, SSM) Activities • Activity 5: A documented and approved subcontractor’s software development plan is used for tracking the software activities and communication status. • Activity 6: Changes to the software subcontractor’s statement of work subcontract terms and conditions, and other commitments are resolved according to a documented procedure. • Activity 7: The prime contractor’s management conducts periodic status/coordination reviews with the subcontractor’s management. • Activity 8: Periodic technical reviews and interchanges are held with the software subcontractor.