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模組9 Module 9. 食品和動物福利 Food and animal welfare. 本模組可讓你瞭解關於 五項自由 的營養和餵食方式 This module will enable you to . 瞭解到營養和餵食相關的 五項自由 Understand how nutrition and feeding relate to the Five Freedoms 設計動物餵食系統時,應善用環境富有的原則。

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模組9

Module 9

食品和動物福利 Food and animal welfare

this module will enable you to
本模組可讓你瞭解關於五項自由的營養和餵食方式This module will enable you to
  • 瞭解到營養和餵食相關的五項自由
  • Understand how nutrition and feeding relate to the Five Freedoms
  • 設計動物餵食系統時,應善用環境富有的原則。
  • Use principles of environmental enrichment when designing feeding systems for animals
food and the five freedoms
食物和五項自由Food and the Five Freedoms
  • 免於飢餓、口渴和營養不良的自由
  • Freedom from hunger, thirst & malnutrition
  • 免於不舒適的自由
  • Freedom from discomfort
  • 免於痛苦、受傷和疾病的自由
  • Freedom from pain, injury & disease
  • 可表達正常行為的自由
  • Freedom to express normal behaviour
  • 免於恐懼和痛苦的自由
  • Freedom from fear & distress
freedom from hunger
免於飢餓的自由Freedom from hunger
  • 飢餓
  • Hunger
    • 食慾中樞
    • Appetite centre
    • 時間預算
    • Time budgets
  • 未餵食
  • Underfeeding
    • 疏忽
    • Ignorance
    • 疾病
    • Disease
freedom from hunger1
免於飢餓的自由Freedom from hunger
  • 疏於照顧動物
  • Animal neglect
    • 動物收容 http://www.tufts.edu/vet/cfa/hoarding/
    • Animal hoarding: http://www.tufts.edu/vet/cfa/hoarding/
    • 疏忽、金錢、氣候
    • Ignorance, money, weather
    • Broiler breeders and sows
    • 育種肉雞和母豬
  • 惡意的殘酷對待
    • http://canadianveterinarians.net/animal-abuse.aspx
  • Wilful cruelty
    • http://canadianveterinarians.net/animal-abuse.aspx
freedom from hunger3
免於飢餓的自由Freedom from hunger
  • 強制蛻皮和換羽 Forced moulting
freedom from hunger4
免於飢餓的自由Freedom from hunger
  • 飢餓和刻板印象
  • Hunger and stereotypes
    • 豬隻
    • Pigs
    • 肉用育種動物
    • Broiler breeders
freedom from hunger5
免於飢餓的自由Freedom from hunger
  • 寄生蟲
  • Parasites
  • 消化不良
  • Maldigestion
  • 吸收不良
  • Malabsorption
  • 利用不良
  • Malutilisation
freedom from thirst
免於口渴的自由 Freedom from thirst
  • 用水不足
  • Insufficient water
    • 肉用動物
    • Broilers
    • 豬隻
    • Pigs
    • 肉牛
    • Veal calves
freedom from thirst1
免於口渴的自由 Freedom from thirst
  • 基本/體內水份的喪失
  • Disease / Loss of body water
    • 口腔炎
    • Stomatitis
    • 代謝性疾病
    • Metabolic disease
    • 胃腸道疾病
    • GI disease
    • 出汗 / 炎熱天氣
    • Sweating / hot weather
  • 病理渴
  • Pathological thirst
  • 水質
  • Water quality
freedom from discomfort
免於不舒適的自由 Freedom from discomfort
  • 體溫
  • Body temperature
  • 緩衝體表
  • Cushioning body surface
  • 移動的輕易性
  • Ease of movement
    • 肥胖
    • Obesity
    • 肉雞
    • Broiler chickens
freedom from pain injury disease
免於痛苦、受傷和疾病的自由 Freedom from pain, injury & disease
  • 營養缺乏症狀如
  • Nutritional deficiency diseases e.g.
    • 佝僂病和骨折
    • Rickets and fractures
    • 貓科動物因缺乏牛磺酸引起的動脈血栓 Arterial thromboembolism in taurine-deficient cats
    • 缺乏礦物質
    • Mineral deficiencies
freedom from pain injury disease1
免於痛苦、受傷和疾病的自由 Freedom from pain, injury & disease
  • 過度餵食寵物
  • Overfeeding companion animals
  • 過度餵食豢養動物
  • Overfeeding farmed animals
    • 鴨、鵝
    • Ducks, geese
  • 肉雞、豬隻
  • Broilers, pigs
freedom from pain injury disease2
免於痛苦、受傷和疾病的自由 Freedom from pain, injury & disease
  • 過度餵食
  • Overfeeding
    • 脂肪肝
    • Fatty liver
    • 蹄葉炎
    • Laminitis
    • 瘤胃酸中毒
    • Ruminal acidosis
  • 未餵食
  • Underfeeding
    • 新生動物
    • Neonates
freedom from pain injury disease3
免於痛苦、受傷和疾病的自由 Freedom from pain, injury & disease
  • 胃潰瘍
  • Gastric ulceration
    • 肉牛
    • Veal calves
    • 馬匹
    • Horses
freedom from fear distress
免於恐懼和痛苦的自由 Freedom from fear & distress
  • 捕食
  • Predation
    • 食肉動物對草食動物
    • Carnivores on herbivores
    • 食肉動物對食肉動物
    • Carnivores on carnivores
  • 餵養上的競爭
  • Competition at feeding
  • 營養作用
  • Nutritional effects
freedom to express normal behaviour
可表達正常行為的自由 Freedom to express normal behaviour
  • 餵食行為
  • Feeding behaviour
    • 食慾和食用
    • Appetitive and consummatory
    • 物種如何自然餵食?
    • How does species feed naturally?
freedom to express normal behaviour1
可表達正常行為的自由 Freedom to express normal behaviour
  • 早期斷奶
  • Early weaning
    • 犢牛
    • Dairy calves
    • 仔豬
    • Piglets
nutrition and environmental enrichment ee
營養和環境豐富性 Nutrition and environmental enrichment (EE)
  • 何謂EE?
  • What is EE?
  • 物種如何在野外覓食?
  • How does species feed in the wild?
  • 食肉動物(進食以解除飢餓)
  • Carnivores (eat to relieve hunger)
  • 草食動物(進食以解除飢餓)
  • Herbivores (eat to prevent hunger)
  • 其他
  • Others
ee designing nutritional ee
設計具有營養的EE Designing nutritional EE
  • 肉食動物+其他動物的肉食動物
  • Carnivores + other animal-eaters
    • 期間、距離和獵食頻率
    • Duration, distance, frequency of hunt
    • 動物單獨和集體捕獵的維度數
    • Number of dimensions that the prey moves in
    • 區群居或獨居
    • In a group or solitary
    • 獵食的特別生理調適
    • Special physical adaptations for hunting
    • 用於搜尋獵物的感官
    • Senses used to find prey
    • 如何捕殺獵物
    • How is the prey captured and killed
    • 是否上述的行為因為不同的獵物而異
    • Are all the above different for different prey?
ee designing nutritional ee1
設計具有營養的EE Designing nutritional EE
  • 草食動物+其他的非肉食動物
  • Herbivores + other non-meat eaters
    • 放牧/吃草期間的吃食區域間距
    • Distance between areas eaten during grazing/browsing
    • 期間/覓食頻率
    • Duration / frequency of foraging bouts
    • 單獨或集體植群的維度數
    • Number of dimensions vegetation is found in
    • 群居或獨居
    • In group or solitary
    • 特別的生理調適
    • Special physical adaptations
    • 用於搜尋食物的感官
    • Senses used to find food
    • 如何覓食和消化?
    • How food is prehended and digested
ee examples of nutritional ee
營養EE的實例 Examples of nutritional EE
  • 益智餵食器
  • Puzzle feeders
    • 例如愛丁堡食物球
    • E.g. Edinburgh food ball
  • 覓食桿
  • Feeding poles
  • 隱藏食物
  • Hiding food
  • 新鮮食物
  • Fresh food
  • 移動
  • Movement
  • 乳房餵食器
  • Nipple-feeders
  • 多樣性
  • Variety
summary
摘要說明 Summary
  • 藉由五項自由營養會影響到動物的福祉 Nutrition affects welfare through all of the Five Freedoms
  • 餵食應可滿足食慾和餵食的進食需求
  • Feeding should satisfy the appetitive and consummatory parts of the feeding motivation
further reading
延伸閱讀Further Reading
  • Agenas S, Heath MF, Nixon RM, Wilkinson JM, Phillips CJC. Indicators of undernutrition in cattle. Anim Welf 2006; 15: 149-160.
  • Christie JL, Hewson CJ, Riley CB, McNiven MA, Dohoo IR, Bate LA. A preliminary equine abuse policy with potential application to veterinary practice. Can Vet J2005; 46: 250-252
  • Fitzgerald BM, Turner DC.
  • Hunting behaviour of domestic cats and their impact on prey. In: Turner DC, Bateson P (eds). The Domestic Cat. The biology of its behaviour. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press 2000, pp. 151-175.
  • Minnaar WN, Krecek RC . Minnaar WN, Krecek RC Veterinary needs of dogs in two resource-limited communities in the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2001;72:209-13.
further reading1
延伸閱讀Further Reading
  • Patronek G. Issues and guidelines for veterinarians in recognizing, reporting, and assessing animal neglect and abuse. In: Olson P (ed) Recognizing and Reporting Animal Abuse: A Veterinarian’s Guide .Englewood, Colorado: American Humane Association 1998: 25-39.
  • Whiting TL, Salmon RH, Wruck GC. Chronically starved horses: predicting survival, economic, and ethical considerations. Can Vet J. April 2005;46(4):320-4.
  • Young RJ. Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003 pp85-106.