behavioral assessment and intervention a continuum of effective strategies in schools n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: A Continuum of Effective Strategies in Schools PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: A Continuum of Effective Strategies in Schools

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 75

Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: A Continuum of Effective Strategies in Schools - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 196 Views
  • Uploaded on

Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: A Continuum of Effective Strategies in Schools. Nicholas A. Gage, PhD IES Postdoctoral Fellow Center for Behavioral Education and Research UCONN. Using Evidence-based Classroom Management Strategies within a PBIS Framework. Goals.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: A Continuum of Effective Strategies in Schools


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: A Continuum of Effective Strategies in Schools Nicholas A. Gage, PhD IES Postdoctoral Fellow Center for Behavioral Education and Research UCONN

    2. Using Evidence-based Classroom Management Strategies within a PBIS Framework

    3. Goals • I will define continuum of assessment practices in schools- Macro to Micro Framework • I will define evidence-based behavioral interventions that map to assessment procedures • You will ask at least three questions • I will not talk too fast or “hop” too much

    4. Continuum • A continuous sequence in which adjacent elements are not perceptibly different from each other, although the extremes are quite distinct (dictionary.com) • Although features of behavior assessments and interventions are different, the underlying theory is consistent (not perceptibly different) • Theory in use is behaviorism

    5. Continuum of Behavioral Support for ALL Few Some All

    6. Continuum of Assessment Data Individual Small Group Classroom School-Wide

    7. Key Starting Point Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment.

    8. Functional approach logic • Behaviors are maintained by consequence events (function) • Behaviors are occasioned by antecedent events • Changing behaviors requires consideration of maintaining consequences

    9. The 3 Term Contingency with Bonus Setting Event! Setting --> Predictor --> Problem --> Maintaining Event (Antecedent) Behavior Consequence

    10. Beauty of function-based Thinking: Closely examine what may be obvious

    11. How do we enact function-based thinking? Data-Based Decision Making

    12. What is DBDM? • Data-based decision refers to the use of data to make decisions in schools • Data • Student • Academic (e.g. DRA, DIBELS, high-stakes tests) • Behavior (e.g. ODRs, rate of aggression, time on-task) • Social (e.g. # of positive interactions, social reciprocity) • Teacher • Personal assessment (e.g. # of OTRs) • Outside assessment (e.g. CLASS, value-added) • Schools • Academic progress (e.g. annual high-stakes tests) • Financial stability (e.g. monthly resource costs)

    13. DBDM is… • A process • Not static • Involves actionable steps that… • Define the problem • Collect the data • Interpret the data • Make a decision • Is iterative

    14. Logic of DBDM • The elegance of DBDM is that it allows us to partition our bias • Suspend opinion • Objective, not subjective (e.g. anecdotes) • Quantification of experience

    15. Kauffman’s thoughts • “The teacher who cannot or will not pinpoint and measure the relevant behaviors of the student he or she is teaching is probably not going to be very effective” (Kauffman, 2005, p. 439)

    16. DATA: 4 Simple Data-Based Decision Making Steps to Success  Define the problem and establish judgment criteria Who, what, where, when, why? What are the socially acceptable criteria? What is success (e.g. 80%)? Acquire a plan Use operational definitions How will you collect and analyze data? Track data Consistently and objectively collect and track data Actively inspect data and modify instruction Organize, describe, and analyze data Relate results back to problem Evaluate student progress and intervention effectiveness

    17. Behavioral Objectives • Specific and measurable statements about expected or desired behaviors and levels of performance at the end of an instructional time period During a 20 minute recess period, plato will verbally respond to peers in a positive or neutral manner in 80% of opportunities for three consecutive days by the end of the first term.

    18. Four essential components of all objectives • learner .... who • behavior ... what • condition .... when, where • criterion... how much and by when

    19. Operational Definitions Key: You can see it and you can measure it! • Engagement: Target student’s body/eyes are oriented to a task or activity that is either asked of her/him or appropriate to setting, such as reading or playing with peers during free opportunities. • Instructional talk: The teacher is engaged in direct instructional talk with the classroom or small group of students.

    20. Data Collection Methods • Paper Pencil • Simple- post-it notes • Complex- partial interval sheet • Golf counter • Cell phones and apps • Rubber band or penny in the pocket “trick”

    21. Organize and Analyze the Data • Excel or other software (e.g. OpenOffice, Numbers, etc.) • Graph paper • Inter-ocular test of significance • Mean • Trend • Variability

    22. Macro-Level: School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) Continuum of Assessment and Behavior: Part 1

    23. Continuum of Behavioral Support for ALL Few Some All

    24. Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement 4 PBS Elements OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

    25. Doesn’t Work Works • Label student • Exclude student • Blame family • Punish student • Assign restitution • Ask for apology • Teach targeted social skills • Reward social skills • Teach all • Individualize for non-responsive behavior • Invest in positive school-wide culture

    26. Experimental Research on SWPBIS SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: Reduction in problem behavior Increased academic performance Increased attendance Improved perception of safety Improved organizational efficiency Reduction in staff turnover Increased perception of teacher efficacy Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine.2012;166(2):149-156

    27. Experimental Research on SWPBIS Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine.2012;166(2):149-156

    28. Continuum of Assessment and Behavior Support: Part 2 Classrooms

    29. Ok, but what about classrooms? YES! • Are school systems and classrooms symbiotic? • Can we utilize the same prevention logic in classrooms (tiered models of support)? • Are there evidence-based practices for addressing classroom-based behaviors?

    30. Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management • Maximize structure in your classroom. • Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. • Actively engage students in observable ways. • Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. • Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008)

    31. 1. Maximize structure in your classroom. • Develop Predictable Routines • Teacher routines • Student routines • Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction: • Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. • Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. • Designate staff & student areas. • Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)

    32. 2. Behavioral expectations/Rules • A small number (i.e., 3-5) of positively stated rules. Tell students what we want them to do, rather than telling them what we do not want them to do.

    33. 3. Actively engage students in observable ways. • Provide high rates of opportunities to respond • Consider various observable ways to engage students • Link engagement with outcome objectives

    34. 4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. • Specific and Contingent Praise • Group Contingencies • Behavior Contracts • Token Economies

    35. 5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. • Error Corrections • Differential Reinforcement • Planned ignoring • Response Cost • Time out from reinforcement

    36. Continuum of Assessment and Intervention: Part 3 Micro-Level Supports: Structural Analysis and Functional Analysis

    37. Structural Analysis in the Classroom

    38. Structural Analysis Structural Analysis is an assessment procedure that manipulates antecedents and/or setting events to increase the occurrence of pro-social behaviors and reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors.

    39. How do you do it? Stichter and Conroy (2005) outlined a 5-step approach • Collect preliminary data- interviews and observations • Develop hypotheses and conduct manipulations • Analyze the Data • Develop intervention plan • Implement and continue to monitor data

    40. Step 1: Data Collection • Interview teachers, staff, paraprofessionals, etc. • Ask open ended question “What happens right before the behavior?” • Key things: Identify behavior and operationally define, develop summary statements (A-B-C) • Collect baseline data • Start with “big picture” and move to specific situations. • Develop data collection methods if appropriate

    41. Operational Definition Key: You can see it and you can measure it! • Engagement: Target student’s body/eyes are oriented to a task or activity that is either asked of her/him or appropriate to setting, such as reading or playing with peers during free opportunities. • Instructional talk: The teacher is engaged in direct instructional talk with the classroom or small group of students.

    42. Big Picture Example

    43. Situational Example

    44. Step 2: Develop and Conduct Manipulations • Review all data sources • including interviews, summary statements, baseline data, and other relevant materials • Develop hypotheses • What antecedents seem to be triggering the behavior? • Example: Nick’s frequency of swearing seems to increase during independent seat work and when the teacher is working with another student

    45. Step 2: Develop and Conduct Manipulations (cont.) • Develop manipulations and define how you will do them • Conduct manipulations and Collect Data

    46. STEP 3: Analyze the Data • Graph the data • Use Excel or graph paper • Review Graph for patterns • Is there a functional relationship present? • Identify the most effective environmental variables

    47. Step 4: Develop Intervention Plan • Based on the results, develop an intervention plan • If high attention reduces the occurrence, develop an attention intervention that is not strictly contingent, but can be, such as check in every 30 seconds, fading to 1 minute, then to 2 minutes , etc.

    48. Step 5: Implement Intervention and Assess Continue to monitor the student’s behavior. If the intervention is not effective, reassess

    49. Recap • Structural Analysis can be used as part of an FBA or as a stand alone procedure • 5-step procedure can be used to guide process • Procedures outlined can be simplified and tailored to meet the needs of the teacher.

    50. Don’t think that we all get it right away and remember the best laid plans do not ensure success, persistence does.