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In the 14th century in Italy therewas a rebirthof art, literature and philosophy, thatwerememberas HUMANISM. This arrived in England only in the 15thcenturybecauseheretherewere a lot of wars, like “the HundredYears’ War” and “the War of the Roses”.
The mostimportantaspectsof the Renaissance were: • - the culture • -the economy • - the geographicalexpansions • - the scientificinnovations
THE CULTURE • The English scholarswent in Italy toattend the universitytolearnGreek and Latin. Whentheyreturned at home theyfoundedclassicalschoolsand theytranslated a lotofItalianpoems, so theyintroduced in the English literature the sonnet , a short text in verses. Oneof the mostimportantauthorofthisperiodwas Thomas More with “L’utopia”.
THE ECONOMY • In the Renaissance therewas the birth of a new social class: the merchants. Theybelongedto the middle-class and theywereinterested in trade, commerce and the economicdevelopment. Thisclassbecamerichalsothankstoprotestantreformsbecausecatholicmonasteriesweredissolved and the laudswere sold tothisnewclass.
THEGEOGRAPHICALEXPANSIONS • Henry VIII founded the modern English Navy, he tripled the number of warships, he built new freights with headlight system that facilitated the navigation. In 1588 the royal navy defeated the Spanish armada. • During the Elizabeth I’s reign Francis Drake circumnavigated the earth. He was the second to do this, only after Magellano. In 1579 arrived In California that he called nova albiom. The first colony was founded in Virginia in 1584, but it had a short life because there wasn’t food and the clime was the worst.
THE SCIENTIFIC INNOVATIONS • In 1543 NiccoloCopernico, with his “ De Revolutionibusorbiumcoelestium” suggested the right vision of the solar system. Here Copernico did a new eliocentricteory that took the place of the tolemaicteory. So the sun, and not the earth, was the center of the solar system.
THE TUDORS From the 1485 to 1568
Henry VII Elizabeth of York Henry VIII Anne Boleyn Catherine ofAragon Jane Seymour Mary Tudor Elizabeth I Edward VI
HENRY VII (1485-1509) • A “treatywith France” goinghimrecognation. • A trade “treatywith the Netherlands” • Strengthned the monarchy and tournedEngland in a modern state • RenforcingEngland’s trading position • Foundationof english navalpowerbyincreasedspending on shipbuilding. England haditsownmerchantfleet and extendeditsmilitarypower
HENRY VIII (1509-1547) • Henry VII’s second son • A natural sportsman, popularbothwith the english elite and the english pubblic • Called the “Golden prince” bothforhisnaturalgood look and chivarly and education • Granted the titleof “Defenderof the faith” by Pope in Latin in 1521
HENRY VIII • Married Catherine ofAragonwho bore him a daugther: Mary I • Asked the Pope for a divorcedtomarry Anne Boleyn • BrokewithRomewhen the Pope refused and declaredhimself “Supreme head of the Church of England” • Anna Boleyngavehim a seconddaughter, Elizabeth • Henry went on tohavefour more wives and one son, Edward VIfrom Jane Seymour
MARY I (1547-1553) • The daugtherof Henry VII and Catherine ofAragon • Refusedtoabandon the catholicfaith • TriedtorestoreEngland topapalobedience • Married the catholic Philip ofSpain • Her nickname was “bloodymary” • Diedwithoutanheir
EDWARD VI (1553-1558) • The son of Jane Seymour and Henry VII • Madeprotestantdoctrine more fullyaccepted • Usedsameof the confiscatedwealthofconvents • Replaced the old latin with the book of common prayer in english
ELIZABETH I (1558-1603) • Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn’s daughter • Became queen of a dividednation, the majorityofwhichwasanti-catholic and anti-spanish • Shewas 25 and had a strong personality,a lively intelligence and a passionatecharacter • Shehadreceivedanexcellenteducation: shecouldspeakfrench, latin and italian
ELIZABETH I • Herchurchofenglandrestored the countryfirmlytoprotestantism • Wasunmarried and usedthisas a politicalweapon • Saidthat the queen wasmarriedtoher people and became the “virgin queen” • Went on royalprogressestobeseen and togettoknowher people • Inspiredmusic,drama,poetry and literaturewith William Shakespeare
ELIZABETH I • Recognisedspainashermaintraderival and enemy • Expandendexploration and overseas • EncouragedseacaptainsFrancis Drake and Walter Raleigh in theirpiracyagainstspanishships and took a share of the profits • Defeated the SpanishArmada in 1588 • Laid the basisofEngland’s empire charteringsevencompanies.
William Shakespeare wasbornatStratford on Avon in April 1564, possibly on 23 April, St George’sDay, whichisalsosaid to be the date of isdeath. His fatherwas a yeoman, a successfultradesmanuntil he metfinancialdifficulties. William was the eldest son and attended the localgrammar school whichgave him a thoroughgrounding in the use of language and classicalauthors. He married Anne Hathawaywhen he wasonly 18 and shewas 26 and pregnant with theirdaughter. Some information abouthis life ismerelyconjectural. In 1584 he leftStratford and went to London. It wasatthat time that he first experienced the playhouse. He wasreceivedintoone of the companies than in being, at first in a verymeanrank; buthisadmirablewitsoondistinguished him, if not as a greatactor, as an excellentwriter.
In 1593 the Londontheatreswereclosedbecause of the plague, and William needed the support of a private patron. He gotsuchsupport from a youngnobleman, the Earl of Southampton, to whom he dedicatedhispoems. When the theatresreopened, Shakespeare became a shareholder and the mainplaywright of the mostsuccessful company of actors in London, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men. In 1599 his company built the Globe Theatre, wheremost of isplayswereperformed. Between 1590 and 1596 he mainlywrotehistoricaldramas. Overlapping with the historyplays, between 1593 and 1600, he put onto the stage tencomedies, ranging from farce to romance. The greattragedieswerewrittenbetween 1595 and 1605. The latter part of his life wasspent in retirementatStratford. He diedwhen he was 52 yearsold and wasburied in the localchurch. Seven yearsafterhisdeath some of his friends and fellowactorspublished an edition of 36 of the plays in the one volume: the famous First Folio.