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Phonemic development

Phonemic development. Exemplar theory/view. /t/. attractor. /d/. Categorical perception. Continuous perception. Categorical perception. Categorical perception. [p]. [b]. [b]. [d]. Liberman 1957. Categorical perception. Like adult speakers of English, English infants

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Phonemic development

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  1. Phonemic development

  2. Exemplar theory/view /t/ attractor /d/

  3. Categorical perception Continuous perception Categorical perception

  4. Categorical perception [p] [b] [b] [d] Liberman 1957

  5. Categorical perception Like adult speakers of English, English infants perceive the gradual transition from [b] to [t] categorically. Eimas et al. 1971

  6. Categorical perception Categorical perception is a unique human capacity and restricted to language. Eimas et al. 1971

  7. Categorical perception • Categorical perception also occurs in other species. • Categorical perception is not restricted to speech. • Categorical perception is not characteristic of all speech sounds.

  8. Phonetic assimilation • Context-free strategies • Context-bound strategies

  9. Phonetic assimilation [d{s] glass [bEd] bread [sek] snake [h{n] hand [da] star Reduction of consonant cluster

  10. Phonetic assimilation [b{n] van [d{t] that [nEr] there [d{k] Jack [d{b] jam [dEk] check Word-initial fricatives are replaced by stops

  11. Phonetic assimilation [bOt] pot [do] toe [dI] kiss Voicing of word-initial stops

  12. Phonetic assimilation [dat] duck [det] gate [zus] shoes [m{ts] match [t{b@dz] cabbage Fronting of consonants

  13. Phonetic assimilation [nOp] knob [b{t] bad [dOt] dog [duf] stove Devoicing of final obstruents

  14. Phonetic assimilation [böt] but [gög] big [gök] book [gIg] pig [gOg] dog [dOt] dot [gök] duck [gIk] stick Harmonization of initial consonants (if the word ends in a velar consonant)

  15. Motherese • Exaggerated stress patterns, exaggerated intonation • Many repetitions • Many vocatives/attention getters • Many questions • Simple sentences and simple grammatical constructions • Basic vocabulary

  16. Fatherese • Question-answer • Request-response • Focus of attention - response

  17. Early words

  18. Pragmatic development Language is an instrument. Language us used to … • express anger • ask a question • promise someone to do something • warn somebody

  19. Pragmatic development Language is learned in social interactions involving three important components: • speaker • hearer • things and events talked about

  20. Pragmatic development Bühler 1934 Organon Model

  21. Pragmatic development dyadic interactions

  22. Pragmatic development Triadic interactions 9-months revolution Tomasello 1999

  23. Vocabulary development 1;2 – 1;3 First words 2;0 100-600 words 9-10 words a day 6;0 14,000 words 18;0 50,000 words

  24. Vocabulary development vocabulary development

  25. Vocabulary development What leads to the vocabulary spurt?

  26. Vocabulary development What leads to the vocabulary spurt?

  27. Vocabulary development • The vocabulary spurt begins when children recognize the symbolic nature of language (i.e. when they recognize that everything has a name. • The vocabulary development is trigged by advanced articulatory skills.

  28. Vocabulary development

  29. Vocabulary development • Words referring to people daddy, mommy, baby • Words referring to animals dog, kitty, bird, duck • Words referring to body parts eye, nose, ear • Words referring to food banana, juice, apple, cheese • Words referring to toys ball, balloon, book • Words referring to cloths shoe, sock, hat • Words referring to vehicles car, truck, boat • Words referring to household objects bottle, keys, bath, spoon • Words denoting routines bye, hi, uh oh, night-night, no • Words denoting activities up, down, back • Sound imitating words woof, moo, ouch, baa baa, yum • Deictics that

  30. Vocabulary development Children’s early words function as speech acts (i.e. there is no functional distinction between words and utterances.

  31. Vocabulary development What do children need to understand in order to learn words? They need to understand the symbolic nature of language.

  32. Vocabulary development What do children need to understand in order to learn words?

  33. Vocabulary development see 1. I saw Peter. 2. I see what you mean. run 1. She is running down the stairs. 2. She ran into Peter. car 1. vehicle 2. toy have 1. She has a dog. 2. I have finished my work.

  34. Vocabulary development head of a department head of a nail header flower head body part to head head of a team

  35. Vocabulary development ball balloon ball orange moon Partitioning of the conceptual space

  36. Vocabulary development doggy dog

  37. Vocabulary development

  38. Vocabulary development Why do children overgeneralize word meanings? • Hypothesis 1: Children are not yet able to distinguish dogs from other animals. • Hypothesis 2: Children’s restricted vocabulary forces them to overgeneralize words.

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