Gas hydrate an emerging resource for america s energy future
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Gas Hydrate An Emerging Resource for America’s Energy Future. Art Johnson Hydrate Energy International. Natural Gas is a Critical Component of U.S. Energy Supply. Total 2008 U.S. Gas Demand: 23.9 TCF. US Natural Gas Consumption Forecast to 2030 .

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Gas HydrateAn Emerging Resource for America’s Energy Future

Art Johnson

Hydrate Energy International


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Natural Gas is a Critical Component of U.S. Energy Supply

Total 2008 U.S. Gas Demand: 23.9 TCF


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US Natural Gas Consumption

Forecast to 2030

From: Dept. of Energy Statistics


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What is Gas Hydrate?

Gas Hydrate is a crystalline solid composed of water and gas. Methane is the most common hydrate-forming gas, but gas hydrates can form from ethane, CO2, propane, and other gases.

One volume hydrate typically contains about 160 volumes methane gas.

Stable at low Temperature and high Pressure

Occurs abundantly in nature

In continental margin sediments and Arctic permafrost


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Global Carbon Distribution

?

?

?

?

Total amount is not known with certainty,

but is enormous


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U.S. Gas Resource Base

Only a fraction of gas hydrate deposits have commercial potential – but the resource base is still huge

Arctic sandstones with infrastructure (~10’s of Tcf)

Arctic sandstones away from infrastructure (100’s of Tcf)

Deepwater sandstones (1000’s of Tcf)

Deepwater permeable, non-sandstone (unknown)

Seafloor mounds, etc. (unknown)

Deepwater, low permeability (100,000’s of Tcf)

Reserves (200 Tcf)

Res. growth & undiscovered (1,500 Tcf)

Remaining unrecoverable (unknown)

Gas Hydrate

Other Gas Resources


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Challenges to Commercial Development

  • Identifying deposits where hydrate is concentrated and has resource potential

  • Establishing commercial viability

  • Establishing environmental impact assessment protocol


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Production Scenarios

Gas Hydrate is a stable solid at low temperatures and high pressures. The primary methods for producing natural gas from hydrate are:

  • Depressurization

  • Heating

  • Chemical Exchange (with CO2)

    These methods involve technological and economic challenges


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Highlights of U.S. Hydrate Program

North Slope of Alaska – Joint industry, university, government program led by BP.

  • 2007 drilling program confirmed exploration model.

  • Confirmed producibility.

  • Long-term production

    test planned for 2010.

  • CO2 sequestration test planned for 2010.


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Methane

CO2


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Highlights of U.S. Hydrate Program

Gulf of Mexico

  • 2008 MMS Assessment:

    Mean estimate of 6,717 TCF in sandstone reservoirs

  • April, 2009 Drilling program led by Chevron logged hydrate-bearing sands.


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Results of Recent International Programs

  • Canada – Successful 2008 Arctic production test at limited scale.

  • Japan – Extensive drilling programs. Moving forward with plans for production test by 2011.

  • India – Extensive 2006 drilling program.

  • China – Initiated drilling program in 2007

  • S. Korea – Initiated drilling program in 2007

    Significant U.S. Collaboration


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Conclusion

With adequate funding, by 2015 the United States will be able to determine:

1. The scale and production methods for economically-recoverable Arctic gas hydrate

2. The scale of the technically-recoverable resource from marine gas hydrate

3. The environmental impact of hydrate gas production and hydrate's role in the environment

This is an important step to ensure America’s energy security – a transition to renewables


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