Gas Hydrate An Emerging Resource for America’s Energy Future. Art Johnson Hydrate Energy International. Natural Gas is a Critical Component of U.S. Energy Supply. Total 2008 U.S. Gas Demand: 23.9 TCF. US Natural Gas Consumption Forecast to 2030 .
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Hydrate Energy International
Total 2008 U.S. Gas Demand: 23.9 TCF
Forecast to 2030
From: Dept. of Energy Statistics
Gas Hydrate is a crystalline solid composed of water and gas. Methane is the most common hydrate-forming gas, but gas hydrates can form from ethane, CO2, propane, and other gases.
One volume hydrate typically contains about 160 volumes methane gas.
Stable at low Temperature and high Pressure
Occurs abundantly in nature
In continental margin sediments and Arctic permafrost
Total amount is not known with certainty,
but is enormous
Only a fraction of gas hydrate deposits have commercial potential – but the resource base is still huge
Arctic sandstones with infrastructure (~10’s of Tcf)
Arctic sandstones away from infrastructure (100’s of Tcf)
Deepwater sandstones (1000’s of Tcf)
Deepwater permeable, non-sandstone (unknown)
Seafloor mounds, etc. (unknown)
Deepwater, low permeability (100,000’s of Tcf)
Reserves (200 Tcf)
Res. growth & undiscovered (1,500 Tcf)
Remaining unrecoverable (unknown)
Other Gas Resources
Gas Hydrate is a stable solid at low temperatures and high pressures. The primary methods for producing natural gas from hydrate are:
These methods involve technological and economic challenges
North Slope of Alaska – Joint industry, university, government program led by BP.
test planned for 2010.
Gulf of Mexico
Mean estimate of 6,717 TCF in sandstone reservoirs
Significant U.S. Collaboration
With adequate funding, by 2015 the United States will be able to determine:
1. The scale and production methods for economically-recoverable Arctic gas hydrate
2. The scale of the technically-recoverable resource from marine gas hydrate
3. The environmental impact of hydrate gas production and hydrate's role in the environment
This is an important step to ensure America’s energy security – a transition to renewables