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Chapter 4 - Experience of Empire: 18 th C. America Religious Revivals in Provncial Societies + Clash of Political Cultures. Elizabeth Duran Judith Guevara Ivanna Incer. Pgs. 109-114 . Religious Revivals in Provincial Society.

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Elizabeth duran judith guevara ivanna incer

Chapter 4 - Experience of Empire: 18th C. America Religious Revivals in Provncial Societies + Clash of Political Cultures

Elizabeth DuranJudith GuevaraIvannaIncer

Pgs. 109-114

Religious revivals in provincial society
Religious Revivals in Provincial Society

“Great Awakening”-Protestant revivals occurred in different times/places.-(1730’s) New England makes first move towards spiritual awakening. (Within a decade these revivals burned out)-Revivals were more important in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia.-Not one religion or sect monopolized awakening.-Before Awakening, Americas complained Congregational ministers only cared about dull scholastic matters, not touching the hearts of people. South experienced shortage of ordained ministers.

Jonathan Edwards:(local Congregational minister) Reminded parishioners their eternal fate had been determined by an omnipotent God. (Ideals embraced Calvinism) Edwards was a brilliant theologian, but lacked the ability to sustain revival.

Voice of popular religion
Voice of Popular Religion

George Whitefield:-Extraordinarily effective public speaker. Came to symbolise powerful cultural forces transforming the Atlantic World. -Brought all kinds of people together; rich, poor, young, and old. -A Calvinist that welcomed Protestants and spoke from any church, as long as it was Christian. -Embraced technology, such as the printing press, to help spread revival. -Itinerant Preacher; traveled from colony to colony to preach.

Gilbert Tennent:-Presbyterian of Scots-Irish background. Educated in middle colonies.-Made sermon “On the Danger of an Unconverted Ministry” (1741); set off storm of established and insulted ministers.-”New Lights”, people who thronged to hear itineraries. -Did not condone excesses of “Great Awakening”, but attacked Church’s formal teachings

Voice of popular religion cont
Voice of Popular Religion (Cont.)

James Davenport:-Deranged revivalist in Connecticut that played upon popular emotion (1742) At night he danced naked, shrieking and laughing. (LOL) Urged people to burn books by authors who did not believe in Davenport’s New Light. Later apologized for behavior.

Positive Changes in Society-Founded several important centers of higher learning; Princeton University (1746); Dartmouth (1769); Brown (1764); Rutgers (1766). -Encouraged men/women to speak up against authority and take active roles in their salvation.-Itineran ministers also preached to slaves. Example:

Richard Allen: (Founder of African Methodist Episcopal Church) Owed freedom to minister who showed his master the sinfulness of slavery. Also brought awareness of a larger community; united colonies for easier interaction.

Clash of political cultures
Clash of Political Cultures

The English Constitution-Constitution was not formal written document. Divided into 3 main parts:*Monarch at the top who was advised by court favorites.*House of Lords: Body of 180- aristocrats and 26 Anglican bishops as upper house of Parliament. *House of Commons: 558 members elected by constituencies

The Reality of British Policies-Original plan to represent 3 different socioeconomic groups didn’t work. Only represented interests of Britain’s elite. -House of Commons did not acknowledge interest of the people; (1715) Less than 20% of males had the right to vote.

Clash of political cultures cont
Clash of Political Cultures (Cont.)

-Electoral Districts varied in size. Some representatives were chosen by a handful of people. Small buroughs, where this occurred, often influenced constituencies. -Group called the Commonwealthmen spoke out against corruption.

  • John Trenchard & Thomas Gordon:Famous Commonwealthmen. Penned “Cato’s Letters” (1720-23) -Gordon and Trenchard inspired Americans, however, people were hesitant to act out against government tyranny.

  • Governing the Colonies: The American Experience -Colonial assemblies in the Americas were planned as “reproductions” of the House of Commons. -Mixed constitution failed in the colonies just as t did in Britain. -Majority of mainland colonies in the 18th C. were ruled by corrupt royal governors who cared little for political stability/improvement.

Clash of political cultures cont1
Clash of Political Cultures (Cont.)

-Never looked like the House of Commons they based their government on. Instead, colonies developed a “middle class democracy” where white males freely expressed judgments in politics. No influence from “rotten boroughs” in Britain.

  • Colonial Assemblies -Members of colonial assemblies believed an attack on the legislature was an attack on colonial liberties. -These good willed members often clashed roughly with empathetic royal governors. If plans and ideas did not appease these governors, they were not considered. Example:

  • Alexander Spotswood: (Virginia Governor, 1710-22) Attempted to institute new land program; failed to gain support from House of Burgesses, as Virginia’s land did not concern them. -One attempt to change the colonial assembly was made by William Shirley.

Clash of political cultures cont2
Clash of Political Cultures (Cont.)

William Shirley:(Held office in Mass., 1741-57) Attempted to re-create Britain’s political system in colonies. Clashed with colonists’ perception of politics, as they believed in balanced constitution -Rise of assemblies began to shape American culture by mid 18th C. Law became Anglicized. Various local legal practices became standardized. -As colonies began to form a stable colonial legislature, differences between Britain and its colonies grew. Colonists became aware of their “cultural identity” through these differences.